Risk Factors
Nutritional Support for Diabetes
Suggested Supplementation


Diabetes is caused by abnormal metabolism of glucose, either because the body does not produce enough insulin or because the cells become desensitized to the effects of insulin.  Possible complications in diabetes include damage to eyes, nerve tissue, kidneys, blood vessels and cardiovascular system, and painful peripheral nerve damage.  Most practitioners focus treatment on blood sugar control. This simplified approach can actually hasten the progression of diabetes and does not address the damage it causes.

A new approach to diabetes and treatment is needed. Over the past 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than doubled, and children are being diagnosed with diabetes in alarming numbers. Diabetes has rapidly emerged as a leading culprit in heart disease, as well as being a leading cause of amputation and blindness among adults.

It is important for us to understand the ways in which blood glucose causes damage and take steps to prevent and interrupt these processes. The most notorious process is glycation (i.e., sugar molecules reacting with proteins to produce non-functional structures in the body). Glycation compromises proteins throughout the body, thus is a key feature of diabetes-related complications (e.g., nerve damage, heart attack, and blindness).  We must try to protect the body from glycation damage.

Oxidative stress is also central to the damage caused by diabetes. Diabetics suffer from high levels of free radicals that damage arteries throughout the body.  Antioxidant therapy is needed to help reduce oxidative stress and lower the risk of diabetic complications.




Insulin is a hormone responsible for transporting glucose into cells. When there is excess glucose in the blood, insulin is secreted from the pancreas and signals the liver and muscles to store glucose as glycogen. Insulin also stimulates adipose tissue to store glucose as fat for long-term energy reserves. Insulin receptors are found in all cells throughout the body. In a healthy person, blood glucose levels are extremely stable (Kumar 2005). Normal fasting glucose levels range between 70 and 100 mg/dL.

Difference between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is an autoimmune condition that occurs when the body attacks and destroys the cells (beta-cells or β-cells) that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5 – 10 % of cases. Because type 1 diabetics can no longer make insulin, insulin replacement therapy is essential.

Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, occurs when the body is no longer able to use insulin effectively and gradually becomes resistant to its effects. It is a slowly progressing disease. In the early stages, both insulin and glucose levels are elevated (conditions called hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia, respectively). In the later stages, insulin levels drop, and blood glucose levels are very elevated. Therapy for type 2 diabetes should be tailored to the stage of the disease.


The Diabetes Damage Cascade

Glycation and oxidative stress are central to the damage caused by diabetes. Unfortunately, conventional treatment for diabetes generally does not address these.

Glycation occurs when glucose reacts with protein, resulting in sugar-damaged proteins called advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (Kohn 1984; Monnier 1984). A measure of blood glucose control that is called HbA1c is actually a measurement of glycated hemoglobin in our blood.

Glycated proteins damage cells in numerous ways, including impairing cellular function, which induces the production of inflammatory cytokines (Wright 2006) and free radicals (Forbes 2003; Schmidt 2000). In animal studies, inhibiting glycation protects against damage to the kidney, nerves, and eyes (Forbes 2003; Sakurai 2003). In a large human trial, each 1 % reduction in HbA1c correlated with a 21 % reduction in risk for any complication of diabetes, a 21 % reduction in deaths related to diabetes, a 14 % reduction in heart attack, and a 37 % reduction in microvascular complications (Stratton 2000).

High levels of blood glucose and glycation also produce free radicals that further damage cellular proteins (Vincent 2005) and reduce nitric oxide levels. Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator that helps keep arteries relaxed and wide open. Oxidative stress in diabetes is also linked to endothelial dysfunction, the process that characterizes atherosclerotic heart disease. According to studies, diabetes encourages white blood cells to stick to the endothelium (i.e., the thin layer of cells that line the inside of arteries). These white blood cells cause the local release of pro-inflammatory chemicals that damage the endothelium, accelerating atherosclerosis (Lum 2001). Diabetes is closely associated with severe coronary heart disease and increased risk of heart attack.


Symptoms of Diabetes

These may include:

  • Increased thirst and urination
  • Unusual weight changes
  • Irritability and fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Dark outgrowths of skin (skin tags) may also appear.


The Truth about Type 2 Diabetes Therapy

Type 2 diabetics are routinely told they need to boost their insulin levels, which will help drive blood glucose into their cells and lower their blood glucose levels. Unfortunately, this defies common sense because in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, insulin levels are already elevated (hyperinsulinemia). This is because the problem is not with insulin production; rather, a metabolic defect of insulin utilization. The delicate insulin receptors on cell membranes are less responsive to the insulin than are the receptors of people without type 2 diabetes, which means that less glucose is absorbed from the blood stream than would be normally, and glucose levels slowly rise.

This elevation in glucose upsets the body’s natural balance, prompting the pancreas to discharge large amounts of insulin to normalize glucose levels. Eventually, the fragile insulin receptors become less sensitive (insulin resistant), which means that the pancreas must secrete even more insulin to keep clearing the blood of glucose. In later stages of the disease, the pancreas becomes “burned out” and can no longer produce adequate insulin.

Unfortunately, many diabetics are prescribed drugs (e.g., sulfonylureas) designed to boost insulin levels, which may actually serve to hasten the disease. Also, insulin itself is a powerful hormone that, in high levels, can inflict damage. Evidence suggests that high levels of insulin may suppress growth hormone synthesis and release among obese and overweight people (who are prone to hyperinsulinemia) (Luque 2006).

Early Stage Treatment

In the early stages of the disease, people suffer from both high blood glucose and high insulin levels.  Rather than take drugs that further increase the level of insulin in the blood, people with type 2 diabetes would do better to increase the sensitivity of insulin receptors on the cell membranes.

One of the best defenses is improved diet and exercise. Although the disease has a genetic component, many studies have shown that diet and exercise can prevent it (Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group 2002; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group 2003; Muniyappa 2003; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group 2000). Just 30 minutes a day of moderate physical activity, coupled with a 5 to 10 % reduction in body weight, produces a 58 % reduction in the incidence of diabetes among people at risk (Sheard 2003). A diet high in fiber, unrefined carbohydrates, and low in saturated fat and low in glycemic index is recommended (Sheard 2004).

A healthy diet for diabetics is also rich in potassium. Potassium improves insulin sensitivity, responsiveness, and secretion. A high potassium intake also reduces the risk of heart disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Insulin administration induces potassium loss (Khaw 1984; Norbiato 1984).

Obese people have a far greater tendency to develop type 2 diabetes than slim people. Therefore, weight loss accompanied by increased exercise and a healthy diet is effective for diabetes prevention and treatment (Mensink 2003; Sato 2000; Sato 2003).


Metformin: Increasing Insulin Sensitivity

In addition to diet and exercise, the prescription drug metformin has been proven to increase insulin sensitivity in people with mild to moderate hyperglycemia. Metformin is now the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic drug worldwide. It works by increasing insulin sensitivity in the liver (Joshi 2005). It also has a number of other beneficial effects, including weight loss, reduced cholesterol-triglyceride levels, and improved endothelial function.

Metformin is better tolerated than many other anti-diabetic prescription drugs, but people with congestive heart failure, kidney or liver disease are not candidates for metformin therapy. Neither are people who consume alcohol in excess. Vitamin B12 levels should also be checked regularly because chronic use of metformin can cause a folic acid and B12 deficiency, resulting in neurological impairment and disruption in homocysteine clearance.

Many other nutrients have been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, protect vulnerable cell membranes, and reduce the damaging effects of elevated glucose (see “Nutritional Supplementation for Diabetics” below). Ideally, a combination of improved diet, exercise, supplementation, and insulin-sensitizing prescription medication can reverse mild to moderate hyperglycemia before stronger medications are needed and permanent damage is done.



Aging, obesity, family history, physical inactivity, ethnicity, and impaired glucose metabolism.

Type 2 diabetes is also a prominent risk of metabolic syndrome, a constellation of conditions that includes insulin resistance along with hypertension, lipid disorders, and overweight.



Certain nutrients can counteract the progression of their disease by improving insulin sensitivity, enhancing glucose metabolism, and mitigating the complications of diabetes.  

Antiglycation Agents

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) form when sugars bond with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. This process contributes to the toxic effects of high blood sugar (Uribarri 2010; Ceriello 2012). Fortunately, several nutrients can counter these processes.


Diabetes and obesity often induce a relative thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, which contributes to some of the damaging consequences of hyperglycemia (Beltramo 2008; Page 2011; Via 2012). Benfotiamine is a fat-soluble derivative of thiamine that has much greater bioavailability than other forms of thiamine, and is capable of reaching concentrations in the bloodstream several times that of orally administered thiamine (Greb 1998; Xie 2014). This unique form of vitamin B1 inhibits AGE formation, inflammation, and oxidative stress (Hammes 2003; Du 2008; Balakumar 2010; Shoeb 2012).

A clinical trial in 165 patients with diabetic neuropathy found benfotiamine supplementation for six weeks reduced diabetic neuropathy pain. The benefits were clearer in subjects who consumed 600 mg of benfotiamine daily compared with those who took 300 mg, and in those who took benfotiamine for a longer period of time (Stracke 2008).

Clinical and animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetes-related neuropathy, kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, and retinopathy (Stirban 2006; Chakrabarti 2011; Stracke 1996; Simeonov 1997; Winkler 1999; Haupt 2005; Nikolic 2009).


The peptide carnosine is capable of inhibiting formation of AGEs and even reversing protein glycation (Boldyrev 2013; Seidler 2004). In a study on diabetic mice, carnosine supplementation increased plasma levels of carnosine 20-fold, reduced triglyceride levels by 23%, and increased stability of atherosclerotic lesions (Brown 2014). Carnosine has also been shown to improve the ability of cells to survive in the presence of high glucose concentrations, and improve wound healing in diabetic animals (Ansurudeen 2012). An animal model of diabetes showed carnosine supplementation improved the ability of red blood cells to change their shape as necessitated by mechanical forces encountered during blood flow; this process is impaired in diabetes, contributing to diabetic complications (Yapislar 2012).

Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate

Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate is the active form of vitamin B6 and an effective anti-glycation agent (Nakamura 2007; di Salvo 2012). Treating 20 type 2 diabetics with 35 mg pyridoxal 5’-phosphate along with 3 mg activated folate and 2 mg vitamin B12 improved skin sensation in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (Walker 2010). Supplementation with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate significantly decreased high concentrations of glycation-induced toxic compounds in diabetic rats, and prevented the progression of diabetic neuropathy (Higuchi 2006; Nakamura 2007).

In addition to preventing protein glycation, pyridoxal 5’-phophate is one of the most effective inhibitors of lipid (fat) glycation. Lipid AGEs are elevated in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls, and accumulation of lipid AGEs contributes to vascular diseases related to diabetes and aging (Miyazawa 2012; Bucala 1993).


Phytochemical AMPK Activators

AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) is a critical energy sensor in the body. Activation of AMPK helps regulate energy metabolism, increasing fat burning and glucose utilization while blocking fat and cholesterol synthesis (Coughlan 2014; Park, Huh 2014). AMPK activation is a mechanism by which the preeminent antidiabetic drug metformin exerts some of its well-known metabolic benefits (Choi 2013; Yue 2014).

Gynostemma pentaphyllum

Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) is native to Asian countries including Korea, China, and Japan, where it is used as tea and in traditional medicine. Like metformin, gynostemma extract activates AMPK (Park, Huh 2014).

In animal and human cell cultures, extracts from G. pentaphyllum have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce levels of glucose and cholesterol, enhance immune function, and inhibit cancer growth (Lu 2008; Yeo 2008; Megalli 2006; Liu, Zhang, 2014). In a randomized controlled trial, an extract from gynostemma modestly reduced body weight and fat mass in obese subjects (Park, Huh 2014). Results from another trial found gynostemma tea improved insulin sensitivity, and lowered fasting glucose nearly ten times more than placebo (Huyen 2013).

In a clinical trial involving 25 diabetics, a gynostemma extract was tested as add-on therapy to the sulfonylurea drug gliclazide. Reductions in plasma glucose and HbA1C were nearly three times greater in the gynostemma extract group compared with placebo. Gynostemma acted by increasing insulin sensitivity rather than stimulating insulin release. It also prevented weight gain and hypoglycemia, which are often associated with sulfonylurea drugs (Huyen 2012).

In a trial in participants with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition strongly linked to insulin resistance, treatment with gynostemma extract, as an adjunct to diet, resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes and insulin levels, a decrease in body mass index, and increased insulin sensitivity (Chou 2006; Utzschneider 2006).


Trans-tiliroside, a flavonoid derived from plants such as rose hips, can activate AMPK. Animal studies and laboratory experiments using human cells have demonstrated that trans-tiliroside exerts anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects including increased fat burning (particularly visceral fat), reduced blood levels of insulin and fats, and decreased after-meal glucose and insulin spikes. Trans-tiliroside also enhanced adiponectin signaling; adiponectin is a key hormone that counters insulin resistance (Goto, Horita 2012; Goto, Teraminami 2012; Shi 2011).

A laboratory study of insulin-resistant human liver cells found trans-tiliroside boosted cellular glucose consumption compared with the antidiabetic drug metformin (Zhu 2010). In mouse models of diabetes, daily oral administration of trans-tiliroside reduced fasting blood sugar by up to nearly 30% after 15 days of treatment, while diabetic mice treated with metformin had a near 23% reduction (Qiao 2011).  Supplemented animals also had significant reductions in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol, and an increase in HDL cholesterol. In a study in obese subjects, 40 g of rose hip powder daily for six weeks significantly lowered systolic blood pressure and plasma cholesterol levels (Andersson 2012).

Green tea extract

Green tea extract, a major constituent of which is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to reduce glucose and insulin levels and improve insulin sensitivity. In a rodent model of accelerated aging, EGCG supplementation lowered glucose and insulin levels. EGCG also increased insulin sensitivity, decreased liver fat accumulation, and improved markers of mitochondrial function (Liu, Chan 2015). In animal models of diabetes, green tea has been shown to protect against diabetic retinopathy (Silva 2013; Kumar 2012).

In a 16-week randomized controlled trial in 92 subjects with type 2 diabetes and blood lipid abnormalities, participants took 500 mg green tea extract three times daily. The green tea group showed significant increases in insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol levels, as well as a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (Liu, Huang, 2014). A two-month trial in 103 healthy postmenopausal women found a significant difference in glucose and insulin levels between a group that took up to 800 mg EGCG per day and a placebo group. Glucose and insulin levels fell in the EGCG group, but rose in the placebo group (Wu 2012). At the end of a four-week trial of catechin-rich green tea in 22 postmenopausal women, those in the green tea group had significantly lower postprandial glucose and significantly better after-meal oxidative stress parameters (Takahashi 2014).

Elevated blood pressure is one of the characteristic cardiovascular risk factors often found in diabetics and prediabetics. A randomized controlled trial administered daily a green tea extract powder containing a total of 544 mg polyphenols to 60 prediabetic subjects. This led to significantly reduced HbA1C and diastolic blood pressure (Fukino 2008). Similarly, a trial in overweight or obese middle-aged men found 800 mg EGCG daily significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (Brown 2009).

Among additional possible mechanisms underlying green tea’s benefits are suppression of inflammatory genes and mitigation of oxidative damage (Uchiyama 2013; Jang 2013; Yang 2013). Also, green tea, black tea (a rich source of theaflavin polyphenols), and oolong tea have been reported to inhibit the alpha-glucosidase enzyme, causing less carbohydrate to be digested and absorbed (Satoh 2015; Yang 2015; Oh 2015). Other evidence suggests green tea constituents may activate AMPK (Liu, Chan 2015).

Bilberry extract

Closely related to blueberry, bilberry is rich in polyphenols and anthocyanins. In a study in diabetic mice, a bilberry extract reduced blood glucose and enhanced insulin sensitivity by activating AMPK (Ogawa 2014; Takikawa 2010). Bilberry polyphenols also have potent anti-inflammatory and free radical-scavenging actions (Subash 2014; Kolehmainen 2012). Bilberry has also been shown in animal studies to combat diabetic retinopathy (Kim, Kim 2015); and a clinical study in 180 type 2 diabetics showed that bilberry, in combination with several other micronutrients, improved measures of ocular health and visual acuity in subjects with preclinical or early diabetic retinopathy (Moshetova 2015).

In a preliminary controlled trial in eight type 2 diabetic males, a concentrated bilberry extract significantly lowered after-meal glucose and insulin levels compared with placebo. Reduced rates of carbohydrate digestion and absorption likely accounted for these effects. Specifically, bilberry polyphenols may have inhibited the action of alpha-glucosidase, preventing the breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose (Hoggard 2013).


Prevention of Exaggerated Post-Meal Blood Glucose Elevations

Several natural compounds can help prevent post-meal surges in blood glucose. Among the mechanisms that natural substances target to allow tighter control of post-meal glucose levels are alpha-glucosidase inhibition, alpha-amylase inhibition, SGLT1 inhibition, and sucrase inhibition (Van de Laar 2005; Matsuo 1992; Melzig 2007; Kinne 2011; Lee 1982).

(a) Alpha-glucosidase inhibition

The alpha-glucosidase enzymes in the intestine break down carbohydrates into simple sugars so they can be absorbed. Inhibiting alpha-glucosidase reduces the amount of simple sugars available for absorption, mitigating postprandial glucose surges (Tundis 2010).

White mulberry leaf extract

White mulberry leaf has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine for preventing and treating diabetes (Mudra 2007). A component of white mulberry, called 1-deoxynojirimycin, impedes the action of alpha-glucosidase, slowing carbohydrate absorption and preventing post-meal blood sugar spikes (Banu 2015; Naowaboot 2012; Nakanishi 2011). This effect of the white mulberry leaf extract has been demonstrated in healthy subjects, type 2 diabetics, and those with impaired glucose tolerance (Asai 2011; Banu 2015; Mudra 2007).

A 4-week randomized controlled trial in 36 subjects with impaired fasting glucose found white mulberry leaf extract significantly reduced post-meal glucose and insulin levels (Kim, Ok 2015). A trial in 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes compared a white mulberry leaf product to the sulfonylurea drug glyburide. White mulberry decreased total cholesterol by 12%, LDL cholesterol by 23%, and triglycerides by 16%; raised HDL cholesterol by 18%; and reduced fasting blood glucose and oxidative stress markers. Glyburide only slightly improved glycemic control and triglycerides (Andallu 2001). A clinical study in healthy volunteers found that 1-deoxynojirimycin-enriched white mulberry powder suppressed post-prandial blood glucose surge and lowered insulin levels (Kimura 2007).

Green coffee bean extract. Epidemiologic studies have linked coffee consumption with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and certain cancers. This association may be explained by the chlorogenic acid content of coffee (Song 2014; Ong 2012; Meng, Cao 2013). Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenol, has demonstrated multiple mechanisms through which it exerts antidiabetic activity, including inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and the glucose-elevating liver enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, oxidative stress modulation, insulin sensitization, and AMPK activation (Bassoli 2008; Ishikawa 2007; Rodriguez de Sotillo 2006; Simsek 2015; Henry-Vitrac 2010; Andrade-Cetto 2010). Chlorogenic acid also lowers levels of blood lipids (Meng, Cao 2013). Chlorogenic acid’s inhibition of alpha-glucosidase allows it to delay glucose absorption, which can result in a more gradual rise in postprandial glucose levels (Johnston 2003).

In a clinical trial in 42 individuals with type 2 diabetes, 300 mg of a chlorogenic acid-containing plant extract daily for four weeks significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), and liver enzymes compared with placebo (Abidov 2006). In another trial, a single dose of coffee polyphenols during a glucose-loading test in healthy individuals significantly protected endothelial function (Ochiai 2014). In a mouse study, green coffee bean extract, a rich source of chlorogenic acid, significantly reduced visceral fat accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity, effects that may have been due to suppression of genes associated with fat deposition and inflammation (Song 2014).

Raw green coffee beans are rich in chlorogenic acid (Farah 2008). However, the conventional coffee roasting process appears to significantly reduce the chlorogenic acid content of brewed coffee (Moon 2009; Zapp 2013).

Brown seaweed extract

Metabolic syndrome prevalence is lower in some Asian countries than in other parts of the world, and some researchers suspect dietary brown seaweed may be protecting these populations (Teas 2009). In laboratory experiments, brown seaweed extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus inhibited alpha-glucosidase and alpha amylase enzymes (Roy 2011).

In a randomized controlled trial in 23 healthy subjects, a single 500-mg dose of brown seaweed extract caused a 48.3% decrease in post-meal blood sugar spikes. Significant reductions in post-meal insulin concentrations and improved insulin sensitivity were also observed (Paradis 2011).

(B) Alpha-amylase inhibition

Like alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase is an enzyme that breaks down larger sugars and starches into smaller molecules that can be rapidly absorbed. Inhibition of alpha-amylase is another way to reduce the rate of sugar absorption (Tundis 2010).

Sorghum extract

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is cultivated for animal and human consumption in several parts of the world, especially Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The grain’s unique protein and starch composition reduce its digestibility and cause it to slow glucose absorption (Poquette 2014). Also, in animal models of diabetes, sorghum inhibited glucose production in the liver (gluconeogenesis) and improved insulin sensitivity. In a laboratory experiment, a flavonoid- and proanthocyanidin-rich sorghum extract inhibited the alpha-amylase enzymes that convert starch into sugars. In a randomized trial in 10 healthy men, muffins made with sorghum were shown to reduce average after-meal glucose and insulin responses (Hargrove 2011; Poquette 2014; Kim 2012; Park 2012).

(C) Additional mechanisms

Some natural products suppress postprandial hyperglycemia via other mechanisms, including inhibition of glucose transporters or sucrase, an enzyme that facilitates digestion and absorption of sucrose (table sugar).


Phloridzin is a unique polyphenol found in high concentrations in apples and apple trees. This compound appears to suppress glucose absorption in the intestine by inhibiting sugar transporter systems in the intestine (SGLT1) and kidney (SGLT2). As a result, glucose reabsorption in the kidney is reduced and glucose excretion into the urine is promoted.


L-arabinose is a poorly-absorbed five-carbon sugar found in the cell walls of many plants. L-arabinose inhibits the activity of sucrase, which is an intestinal enzyme that breaks down sucrose (table sugar) into the absorbable sugars glucose and fructose. When l-arabinose is consumed in combination with sucrose, the breakdown of sucrose is delayed, so that glucose is absorbed more slowly, which results in less exaggerated blood glucose and insulin responses. L-arabinose in combination with chromium, a natural insulin sensitizer, significantly lowered circulating glucose and insulin levels in nondiabetic subjects who underwent an oral sucrose challenge (Karley 2005; Kaats 2011; Krog-Mikkelsen 2011).

(D) Insulin Sensitizers


Chromium, a trace mineral, is essential for carbohydrate and fat metabolism, and is believed to act as an insulin-sensitizing agent. Chromium deficiency has been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes (Suksomboon 2014; Anderson 1997). A 2014 study found chromium deficiency was common in people with prediabetes. The authors recommended screening for chromium deficiency in both prediabetics and diabetics, and supplementing if a deficiency was identified (Rafiei 2014).

Evidence suggests chromium supplementation may improve control of blood glucose, raise HDL cholesterol, and lower triglycerides in type 2 diabetes. Chromium has also been shown to significantly lower HbA1C in type 2 diabetics (Suksomboon 2014; Rabinovitz 2004).


The culinary spice cinnamon has been shown to promote healthy glucose metabolism and improve insulin sensitivity (Anderson 2013; Couturier 2010; Sartorius 2014; Ranasinghe 2012). In a study in type 2 diabetics, a water-soluble cinnamon extract given at a dosage of 360 mg daily lowered HbA1C from 8.9% to 8.0%. The antidiabetic effects of cinnamon extracts have been attributed in part to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, key regulators of glucose and fat metabolism (Sheng 2008; Lu 2012; Ferre’ 2004).

Several polyphenol compounds in cinnamon have free-radical-scavenging properties. In a rodent study, a specific cinnamon polyphenol, procyanidin B2, was shown to delay the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and diabetic cataracts (Muthenna 2013; Jayaprakasha 2006).

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fats are healthy fats found in fish and some nuts, seeds, vegetables, and algae (Higdon 2014). Diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to promote weight loss, enhance insulin sensitivity, and reduce death from cardiovascular disease by reducing inflammation, improving lipid profiles, and reducing blood clotting. When omega-3 fats are incorporated into cell membranes, they make the cell surface more fluid and pliable and appear to enhance cells’ ability to remove glucose from the bloodstream (McEwen 2010; Udupa 2013; Albert 2014; Franekova 2015). A large study in older adults demonstrated individuals with the highest blood concentrations of omega-3 fats, compared with the lowest, had up to 43% lower risk of diabetes (Djousse 2011).

In a randomized controlled trial in overweight type 2 diabetic patients, supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly decreased serum insulin, fasting glucose, HbA1C, and insulin resistance (Sarbolouki 2013). Another trial of supplementation with 2.3 g of the omega-3 fats EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in 84 subjects with type 2 diabetes found a significant reduction in serum inflammatory biomarkers (Malekshahi Moghadam 2012). An eight-week trial in individuals with metabolic syndrome or early type 2 diabetes found fish oil lowered triglycerides and HbA1C and raised HDL cholesterol (Lee, Ivester 2014). Another trial in 44 type 2 diabetics found omega-3 supplementation for 10 weeks improved insulin sensitivity (Farsi 2014).


Magnesium is involved in more than 300 metabolic reactions and plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism. Magnesium participates in insulin secretion and function, and low magnesium levels are correlated with insulin resistance (Gums 2004; Bertinato 2015; Paolisso 1990). Low magnesium levels are significantly more common in people with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance compared with the general population, and higher magnesium levels correlate with lower HbA1C (Hata 2013; Hruby 2014; Hyassat 2014; Galli-Tsinopoulou 2014; Azad 2014). Higher magnesium intake is associated with decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (Guerrero-Romero 2014).

Magnesium supplementation has been shown to lower blood levels of glucose and lipids, as well as blood pressure, in type 2 diabetics. Magnesium supplements were also found to lower highly-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a marker of inflammation, in prediabetics with low serum magnesium (Solati 2014; Simental-Mendia 2014).


Oxidative Stress Inhibitors and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is essential to mitochondrial energy metabolism, and a powerful inhibitor of oxidative stress (Littarru 2007). CoQ10 deficiency has been associated with diabetes (Amin 2014; Kolahdouz 2013; Eriksson 1999). In a randomized controlled trial in 64 type 2 diabetic patients, supplementation with 200 mg CoQ10 per day for 12 weeks decreased serum HbA1C concentration and lowered levels of total and LDL cholesterol (Kolahdouz 2013). A clinical trial in 74 type 2 diabetic subjects found 100 mg CoQ10 twice daily resulted in significantly decreased HbA1C and blood pressure (Hodgson 2002). In a placebo-controlled trial in 23 statin-treated type 2 diabetics, 200 mg CoQ10 per day significantly improved a marker of vascular endothelial dysfunction (Hamilton 2009; Watts 2002).

In an animal model of diabetes, CoQ10 treatment significantly improved insulin resistance, reduced serum levels of insulin and glucose, and increased levels of the energy-regulating hormone adiponectin six-fold (Amin 2014). High levels of adiponectin have been linked to decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular complications (Lindberg 2015; Zoico 2004; Yamamoto 2014).

Long-term use of CoQ10 was demonstrated in two animal studies to be protective against progressive diabetic neuropathy. The beneficial effects of CoQ10 may have been attributable to reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation, both key factors implicated in diabetic neuropathy (Zhang, Eber 2013; Shi 2013).


Curcumin is a major active component of turmeric, the spice derived from the plant Curcuma longa. Turmeric has been used as a treatment for diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Curcumin’s primary mechanisms of action are its ability to neutralize reactive free radicals and reduce inflammation (Nabavi 2015; Zhang, Fu 2013; Meng, Li 2013).

A randomized controlled trial in 240 prediabetic subjects showed curcumin supplementation significantly lowered risk of progressing from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. During the nine-month trial, none of the prediabetic subjects treated with curcumin progressed to diabetes, whereas over 16% of subjects in the control group were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. By the end of the study, subjects in the curcumin group had significantly greater insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, as well as higher adiponectin levels than the placebo group (Chuengsamarn 2012).

Additional experimental studies and human trials indicate curcumin is a promising natural agent for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. Curcumin appears to increase insulin sensitivity and reduce blood levels of glucose and lipids. It also may protect insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas (Nabavi 2015; Zhang, Fu 2013).

Most curcumin formulations have relatively poor bioavailability, requiring high doses to achieve desired blood levels. Fortunately, a novel curcumin formulation, BCM-95, has been developed that delivers up to seven times more bioactive curcumin to the blood than earlier curcumin products (Antony 2008).


Resveratrol, a polyphenol that has received widespread attention for its anti-aging effects, holds promise in type 2 diabetes (Hausenblas 2015; Bruckbauer 2013; Fiori 2013; Tome’-Carneiro 2013; Mozafari 2015). A rigorous review of randomized controlled trials found resveratrol improved systolic blood pressure, HbA1C, and creatinine when used as an adjunct to drug treatment in type 2 diabetes (Hausenblas 2015). In one of these studies, supplementation with resveratrol at 1 g per day for 45 days resulted in a significant decrease in fasting glucose, insulin, and HbA1C and an increase in insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol levels. Notably, the improvements in HbA1C and HDL cholesterol were comparable to those achieved by leading antidiabetic drugs (Movahed 2013).

Lipoic acid

Lipoic acid is a free radical scavenger made by the body in small quantities, though levels decline significantly with age (Park, Karuna 2014; Higdon 2012). Lipoic acid may support healthy blood glucose control by activating AMPK, protecting pancreatic beta cells, and augmenting glucose removal from the bloodstream. Lipoic acid has been used for the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuropathy in Germany for several decades (Ziegler 1999; Gomes 2014; Golbidi 2011; Ibrahimpasic 2013).

In a study in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, arterial flow (a measure of endothelial function) was markedly decreased during fasting and after a glucose challenge. Intravenous administration of 300 mg lipoic acid before the glucose challenge prevented the endothelial dysfunction induced by high blood glucose. Lipoic acid decreases oxygen free radicals, which in excess promote endothelial dysfunction and contribute to diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease (Xiang 2008; Park, Karuna 2014; Gomes 2014).

Lipoic acid comes in two “mirror image” forms labeled “R” and “S.” The R form is the active form produced and used in living systems (Gomes 2014). Inexpensive chemical manufacturing produces equal quantities of R and S lipoic acid, often labeled “R/S lipoic acid” or simply “alpha-lipoic acid” (Flora 2009). Newer precision techniques allow production of a pure, more stable R-lipoic acid supplement, delivering the most bioavailable form. This form is known as sodium R-lipoate, or Na-RALA.  A dose of pure R-lipoic acid provides twice the active ingredient compared with typical alpha-lipoic acid supplements.

Blueberry extract

Blueberries are a concentrated source of polyphenols and anthocyanins that have multiple antidiabetic effects, including protection of pancreatic beta cells, anti-inflammatory properties, and free-radical-scavenging abilities (Liu, Gao 2015; Martineau 2006; Abidov 2006).

A four-week randomized controlled trial of blueberry supplementation was conducted in 32 obese, insulin-resistant adults without diabetes. Subjects were given 45 g of freeze-dried blueberry powder—the equivalent of two cups of whole blueberries—daily for six weeks. Compared with placebo, blueberry treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity (Stull 2010).

In a study in rodents fed a high-fructose diet, fasting insulin was elevated, and insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta-cell function declined. However, when the diet was supplemented with blueberries, these changes were minimized; and when a larger percentage of the diet was derived from blueberries, the effect was greater. Cholesterol and abdominal fat also decreased in the blueberry-fed animals (Khanal 2012).

Grape polyphenols

Grapes are a source of polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, and resveratrol, all of which modulate oxidative stress and have been studied in a wide range of health conditions, including high blood pressure, cancer, and Alzheimer disease (Pasinetti 2014; Kaur 2009; Feringa 2011). Grape polyphenols appear to have important antidiabetic effects and protect tissues from the damaging effects of blood sugar elevations.

In a four-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 32 type 2 diabetics, consumption of 600 mg per day of grape seed extract significantly lowered fructosamine compared with placebo. Fructosamine is a test similar to HbA1C that measures blood sugar level over several weeks. Grape seed extract also lowered total cholesterol and hs-CRP, and significantly elevated blood glutathione, one of the body’s primary internal antioxidants (Kar 2009). Another trial found the non-alcoholic portion of red wine, which is rich in grape polyphenols, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced cardiovascular risk (Chiva-Blanch 2013).

Gamma tocopherol

After-meal blood sugar surges can injure the lining of blood vessels, causing endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Gamma tocopherol is a form of vitamin E with both anti-inflammatory and free-radical-scavenging activity. Two trials in healthy men found gamma tocopherol supplementation protected against changes associated with endothelial dysfunction induced by after-meal glucose spikes (Mah, Noh 2013; Masterjohn 2012; Mah, Pei 2013).

Additional Support

Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both diabetes and obesity, and evidence suggests vitamin D status is closely related to glucose metabolism. People with low vitamin D were more likely to have diabetes, independent of their body weight (Clemente-Postigo 2015).

Several mechanisms have been suggested to account for the association between vitamin D levels and poor blood glucose control. Through its role in calcium regulation, vitamin D may improve insulin sensitivity and regulate pancreatic beta cell function. Vitamin D may also modulate systemic inflammation, which is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Finally, vitamin D may directly stimulate production of insulin receptors in target tissues and thus enhance glucose clearance from the blood (Clemente-Postigo 2015; Pittas 2007). An optimal target range for vitamin D blood levels is between 50 and 80 ng/mL.


In type 2 diabetes, elevated plasma homocysteine is strongly linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Homocysteine promotes endothelial dysfunction through a number of different mechanisms. The B vitamin folate, in concert with vitamin B12, lowers homocysteine by converting it back to the amino acid methionine. Both low folate intake and low blood folate levels are strongly associated with high plasma homocysteine (Selhub 2000; Moat 2004; Sudchada 2012; Van Guelpen 2009; Miller 2003; de Bree 2001; Koehler 2001).

A thorough review and analysis of randomized controlled trials assessed the effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetics. In this population, 5 mg per day of folic acid significantly decreased homocysteine levels, to a degree believed to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, and improved glycemic control (Sudchada 2012).

Genetic predisposition to inefficient conversion of folic acid into the metabolically active 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) is common (Huo 2015). Supplementation with L-methylfolate (instead of folic acid) avoids this potential problem and is preferable to folic acid.

Irvingia gabonensis

Also known as African mango, Irvingia gabonensis is an African tree that bears mango-like fruit (MMSCC 2015). An extract of irvingia seed has been shown to lower blood glucose and lipid levels, and reduce excess body weight (Ross 2011; Ngondi 2009; Ngondi 2005). In a randomized controlled trial, 150 mg of a proprietary extract from Irvingia gabonensis, taken twice daily for 10 weeks, significantly decreased body weight, body fat, and waist circumference in overweight subjects. There were also improvements in several metabolic parameters related to insulin resistance, including increased adiponectin and decreased leptin and CRP (Ngondi 2009).

In another trial, a combination of extracts from irvingia and Cissus quadrangularis, a West African vine, produced significantly larger reductions in body weight and fat, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose compared with the Cissus extract alone (Oben, Ngondi, Momo 2008).

Nicotinamide riboside 

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a critical regulator of cellular energy (Kim, Oh 2015). It is also a cofactor for sirtuin proteins, which are involved in many metabolic activities and associated with longevity. Aging is associated with declining activity of SIRT1, the gene that encodes the sirtuin 1 protein, and preclinical studies have shown increasing SIRT1 expression prolongs lifespan (Poulose 2015). Age-related decline of NAD+ levels has been associated with a reduction in SIRT1 activity (Braidy 2011; Gomes 2013). NAD+ metabolism is also implicated in the causation and complications of diabetes (Yoshino 2011; Canto 2015; Imai 2009).

Supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, an NAD+ precursor, boosts cellular NAD+ levels (Bogan 2008; Khan 2014). Animal research has shown nicotinamide riboside can improve insulin sensitivity, augment the benefits of exercise, combat neurodegeneration, and mitigate the negative effects of a high-fat diet (Chi 2013; Canto 2012). In an animal model of type 2 diabetes, nicotinamide riboside supplementation reduced liver inflammation and improved glucose control (Lee, Hong 2015).





Under no circumstances should people suddenly stop taking diabetic drugs, especially insulin. A type 1 diabetic will never be able to stop taking insulin. However, it is possible to improve glucose metabolism, control, and tolerance with the following supplements:

Primary Suggestions

  • Support Healthy Glucose Metabolism:
    • Sorghum bran extract
    • White mulberry leaf extract
    • Phloridzin (from apple extract [root bark])
  • Supports Healthy After-Meal Glucose Levels:
    • Green Coffee Bean Extract
  • Support Healthy Glucose Absorption:
    • Chromium
    • Cinnamon extract (bark)
    • Seaweed extracts
  • Protect against Damaging Glycation:
    • Benfotiamine
    • Carnosine
    • Pyridoxal-5’-phosphate


Additional Support

  • Bilberry extract (std. to 36% total anthocyanins [36 mg]): 100 mg daily
  • Black tea extract (std. to 25% theaflavins [87.5 mg]): 350 mg daily
  • Blueberry extract: 375 – 1500 mg daily
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (as ubiquinol): 50 – 200 mg daily
  • Curcumin (as enhanced absorption BCM-95): 400 – 630 mg daily
  • Fish oil (with olive polyphenols and sesame lignans): 1400 mg EPA and 1000 mg DHA daily
  • Folate (as L-methylfolate): 1000 – 5000 mcg daily
  • Grape extract: providing 150 – 600 mg proanthocyanidins daily
  • L-arabinose: 475 - 950 mg daily
  • Green tea extract (std. to 98% polyphenols): 725 – 1500 mg daily
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract: 450 mg daily preferably in divided doses
  • Irvingia gabonensis: 300 mg daily
  • L-carnitine: 500 – 2000 mg daily
  • Magnesium: 500 – 1500 mg daily
  • Nicotinamide riboside: 100 mg daily
  • Resveratrol: 250 mg daily
  • R-lipoic acid: 240 – 480 mg daily
  • Rose hip extract (std. to 5% trans-tiliroside [18.6 mg]): 1119 mg daily preferably in divided doses
  • Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin): 1 – 8 mg daily, sometimes up to 40 mg daily (People who take metformin should supplement with B12 because metformin can cause B12 deficiency.)
  • Vitamin D: 5000 – 8000 IU daily, depending upon blood levels of 25-OH-vitamin D
  • Vitamin E: 400 mg daily with at least 200 mg gamma tocopherol




Abidov M, Ramazanov A, Jimenez Del Rio M, et al. Effect of Blueberin on fasting glucose, C-reactive protein and plasma aminotransferases, in female volunteers with diabetes type 2: double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study. 2006;141:66-72.

ACCORD Study Group. Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;358(24):2545-2559.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. A1C and eAG. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/a1c/?loc=keymatch. Last updated 9/29/2014a. Accessed 8/19/2015.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Checking Your Blood Glucose. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/checking-your-blood-glucose.html. Last updated 6/17/2015b. Accessed 9/1/2015.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015e;38(Suppl 1): S8-S16. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/38/Supplement_1/S8.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Foundations of Care: Education, Nutrition, Physical Activity, Smoking Cessation, Psychosocial Care, and Immunization. Diabetes Care. 2015a;38(Suppl. 1): S20-S30. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/38/Supplement_1/S20.full.pdf

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Glycemic Index and Diabetes. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/understanding-carbohydrates/glycemic-index-and-diabetes.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/. Last updated 5/14/2014b. Accessed 8/24/2015.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Glycemic Targets. Diabetes Care. 2015f;38(Suppl. 1): S33-S40. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/38/Supplement_1/S33.full

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Insulin Basics. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/medication/insulin/insulin-basics.html. Last updated: 3/9/2015c. Accessed 4/10/2015.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. What Are My Options? Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/medication/oral-medications/what-are-my-options.html. Last updated: 3/3/2015d. Accessed 4/12/2015.

ADA. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2014. Diabetes care. Jan 2014c;37 Suppl 1:S14-80.

Adams RJ, Appleton SL, Hill CL, et al. Independent association of HbA1C and incident cardiovascular disease in people without diabetes. Obesity. 2009;17:559-563.

Adiels M, Olofsson SO, Taskinen MR, Boren J. Overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins is the hallmark of the dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. Jul 2008;28(7):1225-1236.

Afaghi A, Ziaee A, Afaghi M. Effect of low-glycemic load diet on changes in cardiovascular risk factors in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. Nov 2012;16(6):991-995.

AFAR. TAME: Targeting Aging with Metformin http://www.afar.org/natgeo/. 4/14/2016.

Agrawal NK, Kant S. Targeting inflammation in diabetes: newer therapeutic options. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(5):697-710.

Agrawal P, Arora S, Bhawna S, et al. Association of macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus with serum magnesium levels. Diabetes & Metab Syndr: Clin Res Rev. 2011; 5:41-44.

AHA. American Heart Association. Glycemic Index and Diabetes. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyEating/Glycemic-Index-and-Diabetes_UCM_457070_Article.jsp, Copyright 2014. Accessed 8/24/2015.

Ahmadieh H, Azar ST. Liver disease and diabetes: association, pathophysiology, and management. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Apr 2014;104(1):53-62.

Ahmed S, Mahmood Z, Zahid S. Linking insulin with Alzheimer's disease: emergence as type III diabetes. Neurological sciences: official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. Oct 2015;36(10):1763-1769.

Albert BB, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Smith GC, Garg ML, . . . Cutfield WS. Higher omega-3 index is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and more favourable metabolic profile in middle-aged overweight men. Scientific reports. 2014;4:6697.

Aleem E, Nehrbass D, Klimek F, et al. Upregulation of the insulin receptor and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor are early events in hepatocarcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol. 2011;39(3):524-43.

Aleidi S, Issa A, Bustanji H, Khalil M, Bustanji Y. Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi pharmaceutical journal: SPJ: the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society. Jul 2015;23(3):250-256.

Alfaris N, Minnick AM, Hopkins CM, Berkowitz RI, Wadden TA. Combination phentermine and topiramate extended release in the management of obesity. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. Jun 2015;16(8):1263-1274.

Alssema M, Schindhelm RK, Dekker JM, et al. Postprandial glucose and not triglyceride concentrations are associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with normal glucose metabolism: The Hoorn prandial study. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196:712-719.

Al-Tabakha MM. Future prospect of insulin inhalation for diabetic patients: The case of Afrezza versus Exubera. Journal of controlled release: official journal of the Controlled Release Society. Jul 26 2015;215:25-38.

Amin MM, Asaad GF, Abdel Salam RM, et al. Novel CoQ10 antidiabetic mechanisms underlie its positive effect: modulation of insulin and adiponectine receptors, tyrosine kinase, Pl3K, glucose transporters, sRAGE and visfatin in insulin resistant/diabetic rats. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89169.

Andallu B, Suryakantham V, Lakshmi Srikanthi B, Kesava Reddy G. Effect of mulberry (Morus indica L.) therapy on plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2001;314(1–2):47-53.

Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-91.

Anderson RA, Qin B, Canini F, Poulet L, Roussel AM. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes. PloS one. 2013;8(12):e83243.

Andersson U, Berger K, Hogberg A, et al. Effects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese persons. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:585-590.

Andrade-Cetto A, Vazquez RC. Gluconeogenesis inhibition and phytochemical composition of two Cecropia species. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Jul 6 2010;130(1):93-97.

Anisimov VN. Metformin: do we finally have an anti-aging drug? Cell Cycle. 2013;12(22):3483-3489.

Ansurudeen I, Sunkari VG, Grunler J, Peters V, Schmitt CP, Catrina SB, . . . Forsberg EA. Carnosine enhances diabetic wound healing in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Amino acids. Jul 2012;43(1):127-134.

Antony B, Merina B, Iyer VS, Judy N, Lennertz K, Joyal S. A Pilot Cross-Over Study to Evaluate Human Oral Bioavailability of BCM-95CG (Biocurcumax), A Novel Bioenhanced Preparation of Curcumin. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences. Jul-Aug 2008;70(4):445-449.

Arai Y, Takayama M, Abe Y, et al. Adipokines and aging. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2011;18(7):545-50.

Arion JW, Canfield WK, Ramos FC, et al. Chlorogenic acid and hydroxynitrobenzaldehyde: new inhibitors of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;339(2):315-322.

Aroda VR, Edelstein SL, Goldberg RB, Knowler WC, Marcovina SM, Orchard TJ, . . . Crandall JP. Long-term Metformin Use and Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Feb 22 2016:jc20153754.

Asai A, Nakagawa K, Higuchi O, Kimura T, Kojima Y, Kariya J, . . . Oikawa S. Effect of mulberry leaf extract with enriched 1-deoxynojirimycin content on postprandial glycemic control in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. J Diabetes Investig. Aug 2 2011;2(4):318-323.

Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC. International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values: 2008. Diabetes care. 2008;31(12):2281-2283.

Atzmon G, Pollin TI, Crandall J, et al. Adiponectin levels and genotype: a potential regulator of life span in humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(5):447-53.

Azad KM, Sutradhar SR, Khan NA, et al. Serum magnesium in hospital admitted diabetic patients. Mymensingh Med J. 2014;23(1):28-34.

Azoulay L, Filion KB, Platt RW, Dahl M, Dormuth CR, Clemens KK, . . . Ernst P. Incretin based drugs and the risk of pancreatic cancer: international multicentre cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2016;352:i581.

Azoulay L. Incretin-based drugs and adverse pancreatic events: almost a decade later and uncertainty remains. Diabetes care. Jun 2015;38(6):951-953.

Azzam H, Malnick S. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - the heart of the matter. World journal of hepatology. Jun 8 2015;7(10):1369-1376.

Bahr C, Groner B. The IGF-1 receptor and its contributions to metastatic tumor growth-novel approaches to the inhibition of IGF-1R function. Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland). Mar 2005;23(1):1-14.

Balakumar P, Rohilla A, Krishan P, et al. The multifaceted therapeutic potential of benfotiamine. Pharmacol Res. 2010;61(6):482-8.

Bales CW, Kraus WE. Caloric restriction: implications for human cardiometabolic health. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. Jul-Aug 2013;33(4):201-208.

Balkau B, Kahn HS, Courbon D, Eschwege E, Ducimetiere P. Hyperinsulinemia predicts fatal liver cancer but is inversely associated with fatal cancer at some other sites: the Paris Prospective Study. Diabetes care. May 2001;24(5):843-849.

Bansal N. Prediabetes diagnosis and treatment: a review. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(2):296-303.

Banu S, Jabir NR, Manjunath NC, et al. Reduction of post-prandial hyperglycemia by mulberry tea in type-2 diabetes patients. Saidi J Biol Sci. 2015;22:32-36.

Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(6):889-893.

Barclay AW, Petocz P, McMillan-Price J, Flood VM, Prvan T, Mitchell P, Brand-Miller JC. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk--a meta-analysis of observational studies. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Mar 2008;87(3):627-637.

Barth E, Albuszies G, Baumgart K, et al. Glucose metabolism and catecholamines. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(9 Suppl):S508-18.

Bassi N, Karagodin I, Wang S, et al. Lifestyle modification for metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. Am J Med. 2014;127:1242.el-1242e10.

Bassoli BK, Cassolla P, Borba-Murad GR, Constantin J, Salgueiro-Pagadigorria CL, Bazotte RB, . . . de Souza HM. Chlorogenic acid reduces the plasma glucose peak in the oral glucose tolerance test: effects on hepatic glucose release and glycaemia. Cell biochemistry and function. Apr 2008;26(3):320-328.

Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C, Kim MJ, Caron M, Vidal H, . . . Feve B. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. European cytokine network. Mar 2006;17(1):4-12.

Basu R, Chandramouli V, Dicke B, et al. Obesity and type 2 diabetes impair insulin-induced suppression of glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis. Diabetes. 2005;54(7):1942-1948.

Batterham RL, Cummings DE. Mechanisms of Diabetes Improvement Following Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery. Diabetes care. Jun 2016;39(6):893-901.

Bazzano LA, Li TY, Joshipura KJ, Hu FB. Intake of fruit, vegetables, and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women. Diabetes care. Jul 2008;31(7):1311-1317.

Belfiore A, Malaguarnera R. Insulin receptor and cancer. Endocrine-Related Cancer. 2011;18:R125-R147.

Beltramo E, Berrone E, Tarallo S, Porta M. Effects of thiamine and benfotiamine on intracellular glucose metabolism and relevance in the prevention of diabetic complications. Acta diabetologica. Sep 2008;45(3):131-141.

Benjamin EM. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose: The Basics. Clinical Diabetes. 2002;20(1):45-47.

Berstein LM. Metformin in obesity, cancer and aging: addressing controversies. Aging (Albany NY). 2012;4(5):320-329.

Bertinato J, Wu Xiao C, Ratnayake WM, Fernandez L, Lavergne C, Wood C, Swist E. Lower serum magnesium concentration is associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity in South Asian and white Canadian women but not men. Food Nutr Res. 2015;59:25974.

Beurel E, Grieco SF, Jope RS. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3): regulation, actions, and diseases. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2015;0:114-131.

Bhupathiraju SN, Tobias DK, Malik VS, Pan A, Hruby A, Manson JE, . . . Hu FB. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from 3 large US cohorts and an updated meta-analysis. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jul 2014;100(1):218-232.

Bik W, Baranowska-Bik A, Wolinska-Witort E, et al. Assessment of adiponectin and its isoforms in Polish centenarians. Experimental Gerontology. 2013;48:401-407.

Bik W, Baranowska-Bik A, Wolinska-Witort E, et al. The relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic status in centenarian, early elderly, young and obese women. Neuro Endocrinol. 2006;27(4):493-500.

Bjornholt JV, Erikssen G, Aaser E, et al. Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:45-49.

Blagosklonny MV. Validation of anti-aging drugs by treating age-related diseases. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1(3):281-288.

Bock G, Chittilapilly E, Basu R, Toffolo G, Cobelli C, Chandramouli V, . . . Rizza RA. Contribution of hepatic and extrahepatic insulin resistance to the pathogenesis of impaired fasting glucose: role of increased rates of gluconeogenesis. Diabetes. Jun 2007;56(6):1703-1711.

Boden G. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in health and diabetes. J Investig Med. 2004;52(6):375-378.

Boers I, Muskiet FA, Berkelaar E, Schut E, Penders R, Hoenderdos K, . . . Jong MC. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study. Lipids in health and disease. 2014;13:160.

Bogan KL, Brenner C. Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition. Annual review of nutrition. 2008;28:115-130.

Boldyrev AA, Aldini G, Derave W. Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine. Physiological reviews. Oct 2013;93(4):1803-1845.

Bowker SL, Majumdar SR, Veugelers P, et al. Increased cancer-related mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes who use sulfonylureas or insulin. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):254-8.

Boyle JG, Salt IP, McKay GA. Metformin action on AMP-activated protein kinase: a translational research approach to understanding a potential new target. Diabet Med. 2010;27(10):1097-106.

Bozkaya G, Ozgu E, Karaca B. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2010;65(11):1077-1080.

Braidy N, Guillemin GJ, Mansour H, Chan-Ling T, Poljak A, Grant R. Age Related Changes in NAD+ Metabolism Oxidative Stress and Sirt1 Activity in Wistar Rats. PloS one. 2011;6(4):e19194.

Brown AL, Lane J, Coverly J, Stocks J, Jackson S, Stephen A, . . . Hendrickx H. Effects of dietary supplementation with the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on insulin resistance and associated metabolic risk factors: randomized controlled trial. The British journal of nutrition. Mar 2009;101(6):886-894.

Brown BE, Kim CH, Torpy FR, Bursill CA, McRobb LS, Heather AK, . . . van Reyk DM. Supplementation with carnosine decreases plasma triglycerides and modulates atherosclerotic plaque composition in diabetic apo E(-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis. Feb 2014;232(2):403-409.

Bruckbauer A, Zemel MB. Synergistic effects of metformin, reveratrol, and hydroxymethylbutyrate on insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2013;6:93-102.

Bruin JE, Saber N, Braun N, et al. Treating diet-induced diabetes and obesity with human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and antidiabetic drugs. Stem Cell Reports. 2015;4(4):605-620.

Bucala R, Makita Z, Koschinsky T, et al. Lipid advanced glycosylation: pathway for lipid oxidation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993;90:6434-6438.

Buse JB, DeFronzo RA, Rosenstock J, Kim T, Burns C, Skare S, . . . Fineman M. The Primary Glucose-Lowering Effect of Metformin Resides in the Gut, Not the Circulation: Results From Short-term Pharmacokinetic and 12-Week Dose-Ranging Studies. Diabetes care. Feb 2016;39(2):198-205.

Calder PC, Ahluwalia N, Brouns F, et al. Dietary factors and low-grade inflammation in relation to overweight and obesity. Br J Nutr. 2011;106 Suppl 3:S5-78.

Campbell LK, White JR, Campbell RK. Acarbose: its role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. Nov 1996;30(11):1255-1262.

Canto C, Houtkooper RH, Pirinen E, Youn DY, Oosterveer MH, Cen Y, . . . Auwerx J. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Cell Metab. Jun 6 2012;15(6):838-847.

Canto C, Menzies KJ, Auwerx J. NAD(+) Metabolism and the Control of Energy Homeostasis: A Balancing Act between Mitochondria and the Nucleus. Cell Metab. Jul 7 2015;22(1):31-53.

Capasso I, Esposito E, Pentimalli F, Montella M, Crispo A, Maurea N, . . . Giordano A. Homeostasis model assessment to detect insulin resistance and identify patients at high risk of breast cancer development: National Cancer Institute of Naples experience. Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR. 2013;32:14.

Capel I, Rigla M, Garcia-Saez G, Rodriguez-Herrero A, Pons B, Subias D, . . . Hernando ME. Artificial pancreas using a personalized rule-based controller achieves overnight normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. Mar 2014;16(3):172-179.

Carter P, Gray LJ, Talbot D, Morris DH, Khunti K, Davies MJ. Fruit and vegetable intake and the association with glucose parameters: a cross-sectional analysis of the Let's Prevent Diabetes Study. European journal of clinical nutrition. Jan 2013;67(1):12-17.

Cavalot F, Petrelli A, Traversa M, et al. Postprandial blood glucose is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than fasting glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in women: lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(3):813-9.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data and Statistics. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/index.html. Last updated: 3/4/2015b. Accessed 4/2/2015.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes Home. Basics About Diabetes. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.html. Last updated: 3/31/2015a. Accessed 4/3/2015.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes in Youth. <http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/risk/age/youth.html>. Last updated 12/9/2014. Accessed 8/12/2015.

Ceriello A, Ihnat MA, Thorpe JE. The “metabolic memory”: is more than just tight glucose control necessary to prevent diabetic complications? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(2):410-415.

Ceriello A. Diabetic complications: from oxidative stress to inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. Medicographia. 2011;33:29-34.

Ceriello A. Point: Postprandial glucose levels are a clinically important treatment target. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(8):1905-1907.

Ceriello A. The emerging challenge in diabetes: the “metabolic memory.” Vascul Pharmacol. 2012;57:133-138.

Chakrabarti R, Chen M, Liu W, Chen S. Preventive effects of benfotiamine in chronic diabetic complications. J Diabetes Investig. Apr 7 2011;2(2):123-131.

Chan JH, Lim S, Wong WS. Antisense oligonucleotides: from design to therapeutic application. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. May-Jun 2006;33(5-6):533-540.

Chen K, Li F, Li J, et al. Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin. Nature Medicine. 2006;12(4):425-432.

Cheng P, Neugaard B, Foulis P, Conlin PR. Hemoglobin A1C as a predictor of incident diabetes. Diabetes care. Mar 2011;34(3):610-615.

Chi Y, Sauve AA. Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Nov 2013;16(6):657-661.

Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, et al. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomized trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9323):2072-7.

Chiu C-T, Chuang D-M. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010;128(2):281-304.

Chiva-Blanch G, Urpi-Sarda M, Ros E, Valderas-Martinez P, Casas R, Arranz S, . . . Estruch R. Effects of red wine polyphenols and alcohol on glucose metabolism and the lipid profile: a randomized clinical trial. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Apr 2013;32(2):200-206.

Cho YM. A gut feeling to cure diabetes: potential mechanisms of diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. Diabetes Metab J. Dec 2014;38(6):406-415.

Choi YK, Park KG. Metabolic roles of AMPK and metformin in cancer cells. Molecules and cells. Oct 2013;36(4):279-287.

Chokrungvaranon N, Deer J, Reaven PD. Intensive glycemic control and cardiovascular disease: are there patients who may benefit? Postgraduate medicine. Nov 2011;123(6):114-123.

Chou HC, Chen WW, Hsiao FY. Acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: a population-based nested case-control study. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. Jul 2014;37(7):521-528.

Chou SC, Chen KW, Hwang JS, et al. The add-on effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006;12(3):34-9.

Chuengsamarn S, Rattanamongkolgul S, Luechapudiporn R, et al. Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(11):2121-7.

Chung ST, Hsia DS, Chacko SK, Rodriguez LM, Haymond MW. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. Mar 2015;58(3):596-603.

Clemente-Postigo M, Munoz-Garach A, Serrano M, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adipose tissue vitamin D receptor gene expression: relationship with obesity and type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:E591-E595.

Clore JN, Stillman J, Sugerman H. Glucose-6-phosphatase flux in vitro is increased in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2000;49:969-974.

Cohen O, Gillam M. First Consult. Diabetes mellitus type 1 in adults. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com. Copyright by Elsevier BV, Inc. Last updated 10/17/2013. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, . . . Braun B. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes care. Dec 2010;33(12):e147-167.

Colman RJ, Anderson RM, Johnson SC, Kastman EK, Kosmatka KJ, Beasley TM, . . . Weindruch R. Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys. Science (New York, N.Y.). Jul 10 2009;325(5937):201-204.

Coniff RF, Shapiro JA, Robbins D, Kleinfield R, Seaton TB, Beisswenger P, McGill JB. Reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin and postprandial hyperglycemia by acarbose in patients with NIDDM. A placebo-controlled dose-comparison study. Diabetes care. Jun 1995;18(6):817-824.

Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML, et al. Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. NEJM. 1996;334:292-5.

Cordera R, Adami GF. From bariatric to metabolic surgery: Looking for a "disease modifier" surgery for type 2 diabetes. World journal of diabetes. Jan 25 2016;7(2):27-33.

Costemale-Lacoste JF, Guilloux JP, Gaillard R. The role of GSK-3 in treatment-resistant depression and links with the pharmacological effects of lithium and ketamine: A review of the literature. L'Encephale. Apr 2016;42(2):156-164.

Coughlan KA, Valentine RJ, Ruderman NB, et al. AMPK activation: a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014;7:241-253.

Coutinho M, Gerstein HC, Wang Y, Yusuf S. The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes care. Feb 1999;22(2):233-240.

Couturier K, Batandier C, Awada M, Hininger-Favier I, Canini F, Anderson RA, . . . Roussel AM. Cinnamon improves insulin sensitivity and alters the body composition in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. Sep 1 2010;501(1):158-161.

Cowey S, Hardy RW. The metabolic syndrome: a high-risk state for cancer? Am J Pathol. 2006;169(5):1505-1522.

Currie CJ, Poole CD, Gale EAM. The influence of glucose-lowering therapies on cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1766-1777.

Dandona P, Aljada A, Bandyopadhyay A. Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes. Trends in immunology. Jan 2004;25(1):4-7.

Dankner R, Shanik MH, Keinan-Boker L, Cohen C, Chetrit A. Effect of elevated basal insulin on cancer incidence and mortality in cancer incident patients: the Israel GOH 29-year follow-up study. Diabetes care. Jul 2012;35(7):1538-1543.

Davidson MB, Peters AL. An overview of metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American journal of medicine. Jan 1997;102(1):99-110.

Davis PA, Yokoyama W. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis. J Med Food. 2011;14(9):884-9.

de Bree A, Verschuren WM, Blom HJ, Kromhout D. Association between B vitamin intake and plasma homocysteine concentration in the general Dutch population aged 20-65 y. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jun 2001;73(6):1027-1033.

de Carvalho Vidigal F, Guedes Cocate P, Goncalves Pereira L, de Cassia Goncalves Alfenas R. The role of hyperglycemia in the induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory process. Nutr Hosp. Sep-Oct 2012;27(5):1391-1398.

De Felice FG, Lourenco MV, Ferreira ST. How does brain insulin resistance develop in Alzheimer’s disease? Alzheimer’s Dement. 2014;10(Suppl):S26-32.

de Heer J, Goke B. Are incretin mimetics and enhancers linked to pancreatitis and malignant transformations in pancreas? Expert opinion on drug safety. Nov 2014;13(11):1469-1481.

de Jager J, Kooy A, Lehert P, et al. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency: randmised placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;340:c2181.

de la Monte SM, Wands JR. Alzheimer’s disease is type 3 diabetes-evidence reviewed. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2(6):1101-1113.

De Tata V. Age-related impairment of pancreatic beta-cell function: pathophysiological and cellular mechanisms. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:138.

de Vries MA, Klop B, Janssen HW, Njo TL, Westerman EM, Castro Cabezas M. Postprandial inflammation: targeting glucose and lipids. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2014;824:161-170.

DeFronzo RA, Tripathy D. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. Nov 2009;32 Suppl 2:S157-163.

DeFronzo RA, Triplitt CL, Abdul-Ghani M, et al. Novel agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum. 2014;27(2):100-112.

DeFuria J, Bennett G, Strissel KJ, Perfield JW, 2nd, Milbury PE, Greenberg AS, Obin MS. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae. The Journal of nutrition. Aug 2009;139(8):1510-1516.

Del Bene A, Ciolli L, Borgheresi L, et al. Is type 2 diabetes related to leukoaraiosis? an updated review. Acta Neurol Scand. 2015;Mar 16. Doi:10.1111/ane.12398.

Delamater AM. Clinical Use of Hemoglobin A1C to Improve Diabetes Management. Clinical Diabetes. January 1, 2006 2006;24(1):6-8.

Delgado H, Lehmann T, Bobbioni-Harsch E, Ybarra J, Golay A. Acarbose improves indirectly both insulin resistance and secretion in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes & metabolism. Jun 2002;28(3):195-200.

Derdemezis CS, Lovegrove JA. Glycemic index, glycemic control and beyond. Current pharmaceutical design. 2014;20(22):3620-3630.

Derosa G, Maffioli P. Efficacy and safety profile evaluation of acarbose alone and in association with other antidiabetic drugs: a systematic review. Clin Ther. 2012;34(6):1221-1236.

Despres JP, Lamarche B, Mauriege P, et al. Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334.15:952-958.

di Salvo ML, Safo MK, Contestabile R. Biomedical aspects of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate availability. Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition). 2012;4:897-913.

Diabetes Care. 2014;37(2):419-27.

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Research Group. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): description of lifestyle intervention. Diabetes care. Dec 2002;25(12):2165-2171.

Diabetes.co.uk. Treatment: Medication. Metformin Side Effects http://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-medication/metformin-side-effects.html. Copyright 2016. Accessed 8/8/2016.

Dimsdale JE, Moss J. Short-term catecholamine response to psychological stress. Psychosomatic medicine. Sep 1980;42(5):493-497.

Dineley KT, Jahrling JB, Denner L. Insulin resistance in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;Dec;72Pt A:92-103.

Ding D, Qiu J, Li X, et al. Hyperglycemia and mortality among patients with coronary artery disease. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(2):546-54.

Djiogue S, Nwabo Kamdje AH, Vecchio L, et al. Insulin resistance and cancer: the role of insulin and IGFs. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013;20:R1-R17.

Djousse L, Biggs ML, Lemaitre N, et al. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids and incident diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):527-533.

Dong JY, Zhang WG, Chen JJ, Zhang ZL, Han SF, Qin LQ. Vitamin D intake and risk of type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrients. Sep 2013;5(9):3551-3562.

Dowling RJO, Goodwin PJ, Stambolic V. Understanding the benefit of metformin use in cancer treatment. BMC Medicine. 2011;9:33.

Drager LF, Togeiro SM, Polotsky VY, Lorenzi-Filho G. Obstructive sleep apnea: a cardiometabolic risk in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Aug 13 2013;62(7):569-576.

Draznin B. Mechanism of the mitogenic influence of hyperinsulinemia. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. 2011;3:10.

Drucker DJ, Nauck MA. The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes. The Lancet. 2006;368(9548):1696-1705.

DTU. Diabetes Trial Unit: The Oxford Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism. The Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) Overview. https://www.dtu.ox.ac.uk/ACE/. Accessed 9/4/2015.

Du X, Edelstein D, Brownlee M. Oral benfotiamine plus alpha-lipoic acid normalises complication-causing pathways in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. Oct 2008;51(10):1930-1932.

Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, Reda D, Emanuele N, Reaven PD, . . . Huang GD. Glucose Control and Vascular Complications in Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009;360(2):129-139.

Dworatzek PD, Arcudi K, Gougeon R, Husein N, Sievenpiper JL, Williams SL. Nutrition therapy. Canadian journal of diabetes. Apr 2013;37 Suppl 1:S45-55.

Edgerton DS, Cardin S, Pan C, et al. Effects of insulin deficiency or excess on hepatic gluconeogenesis flux during glycogenolytic inhibition in the conscious dog. Diabetes. 2002;51(11):3151-3162.

Egan AG, Blind E, Dunder K, de Graeff PA, Hummer BT, Bourcier T, Rosebraugh C. Pancreatic Safety of Incretin-Based Drugs — FDA and EMA Assessment. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;370(9):794-797.

Eldar-Finkelman H, Martinez A. GSK-3 Inhibitors: Preclinical and Clinical Focus on CNS. Front Mol Neurosci. 2011;4:32.

El-Gohary Y, Tulachan S, Wiersch J, Guo P, Welsh C, Prasadan K, . . . Gittes G. A Smad Signaling Network Regulates Islet Cell Proliferation. Diabetes. 2013;63(1):224-236.

Emslie-Smith A, Dowall J, Morris A. The problem of polypharmacy in type 2 diabetes. The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease. 2003;3(1):54-56.

Eriksson JG, Forsen TJ, Mortensen SA, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 administration on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. BioFactors 9. 1999;315-318.

Esposito K, Giugliano D. Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. Mar 2014;30 Suppl 1:34-40.

Esser N, Paquot N, Scheen AL, Anti-inflammatory agents to treat or prevent type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2015;24(3):283-307.

Fadini GP, Avogaro A. Cardiovascular effects of DPP-4 inhibition: Beyond GLP-1. Vascular Pharmacology. 2011;55(1–3):10-16.

Farah A, Monteiro M, Donangelo CM, Lafay S. Chlorogenic Acids from Green Coffee Extract are Highly Bioavailable in Humans. The Journal of nutrition. 2008;138(12):2309-2315.

Farsi PF, Djazayery A, Eshraghian MR, Koohdani F, Saboor-Yaraghi AA, Derakhshanian H, . . . Djalali M. Effects of supplementation with omega-3 on insulin sensitivity and non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) in type 2 diabetic patients. Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia. Jun 2014;58(4):335-340.

FDA. U.S.  Food and Drug Administration. News and Events. FDA News Release. FDA approves Afrezza to treat diabetes. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm403122.htm. Updated: 6/30/2014. Accessed 4/19/2015.

FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Safety. Exubera (insulin human [rDNA origin] Inhalation Powder September 2008. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/Safety-RelatedDrugLabelingChanges/ucm122978.htm. Last updated: 6/19/2009. Accessed 6/21/2015.

FDA. What is the pancreas? What is an artificial pancreas device system? http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/HomeHealthandConsumer/ConsumerProducts/ArtificialPancreas/ucm259548.htm. 2016. 3/30/2016.

Ferensztajn-Rochowiak E, Rybakowski JK. The effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells. Pharmacological reports: PR. Apr 2016;68(2):224-230.

Feringa HH, Laskey DA, Dickson JE, Coleman CI. The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Aug 2011;111(8):1173-1181.

Ferre’ P. The biology of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: relationship with lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Daibetes. 2004;53(suppl 1):S43-S50.

Feskens EJM, Kromhout D. Glucose tolerance and the risk of cardiovascular disease: The Zutphen Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45(11):1327-1334.

Feuers RJ, Desai VG, Chen FX, Hunter JD, Duffy PH, Oriaku ET. Effects of dietary restriction on insulin resistance in obese mice. J Am Aging Assoc. Apr 2000;23(2):95-101.

Fiori JL, Shin YK, Kim W, et al. Resveratrol prevents beta-cell dedifferentiation in nonhuman primates given a high-fat/high-sugar diet. Diabetes. 2013;62(10):3500-13.

Fleischman A, Shoelson SE, Bernier R, Goldfine AB. Salsalate improves glycemia and inflammatory parameters in obese young adults. Diabetes care. Feb 2008;31(2):289-294.

Fleming LW, Fleming JW, Davis CS. Afrezza: an inhaled approach to insulin delivery. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2015;Mar 12. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12247.

Flora SJ. Structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants for strategies against metal and metalloid exposure. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. Sep-Oct 2009;2(4):191-206.

Fonseca V, Levinson P, Toth DW, Gillam M. First Consult. Diabetes mellitus type 2 in adults. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com. Copyright by Elsevier BV, Inc. Last updated 8/26/2013. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Forouzandeh F, Salazar G, Patrushev N, et al. Metformin beyond diabetes: pleiotropic benefits of metformin in attenuation of atherosclerosis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(6):e001202.

Forslund K, Hildebrand F, Nielsen T, Falony G, Le Chatelier E, Sunagawa S, . . . Pedersen O. Disentangling type 2 diabetes and metformin treatment signatures in the human gut microbiota. Nature. Dec 10 2015;528(7581):262-266.

Fowler MJ. Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Clinical Diabetes. 2008;26(2):77-82.

Franciosi M, Lucisano G, Lapice E, et al. Metformin therapy and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: systematic review. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71583.

Franekova V, Angin Y, Hoebers NT, Coumans WA, Simons PJ, Glatz JF, . . . Larsen TS. Marine omega-3 fatty acids prevent myocardial insulin resistance and metabolic remodeling as induced experimentally by high insulin exposure. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. Feb 15 2015;308(4):C297-307.

Fukino Y, Ikeda A, Maruyama K, Aoki N, Okubo T, Iso H. Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea-extract powder supplementation on glucose abnormalities. European journal of clinical nutrition. Aug 2008;62(8):953-960.

Fung TT, van Dam RM, Hankinson SE, Stampfer M, Willett WC, Hu FB. Low-Carbohydrate Diets and All-Cause and Cause-Specific MortalityTwo Cohort Studies. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2010;153(5):289-298.

Galic S, Oakhill JS, Steinberg GR. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Molecular and cellular endocrinology. Mar 25 2010;316(2):129-139.

Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Maggana I, Kyrgios I, et al. Association between magnesium concentration and HbA1C in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes. 2014;6(4):369-77.

Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Stergidou D. Insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998). Dec 2012;48(12):795-809.

Garber AJ. Long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists: a review of their efficacy and tolerability. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl2):S279-S284.

Garvey WT, Ryan DH, Look M, Gadde KM, Allison DB, Peterson CA, . . . Bowden CH. Two-year sustained weight loss and metabolic benefits with controlled-release phentermine/topiramate in obese and overweight adults (SEQUEL): a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 extension study. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Feb 2012;95(2):297-308.

Garvey WT. Phentermine and topiramate extended-release: a new treatment for obesity and its role in a complications-centric approach to obesity medical management. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2013;12(5):741-56.

Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Genuth S, Ismail-Beigi F, Buse JB, Goff DC, Jr., . . . Friedewald WT. Long-term effects of intensive glucose lowering on cardiovascular outcomes. The New England journal of medicine. Mar 3 2011;364(9):818-828.

Gerstein HC, Pais P, Pogue J, et al. Relationship of glucose and insulin levels to the risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;33:612-9.

Giacco F, Brownlee M. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ Res. 2010;107(9):1058-1070.

Gilgun-Sherki Y, Melamed E, Offen D. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: the need for effective antioxidant therapy. Journal of neurology. Mar 2004;251(3):261-268.

Godsland IF. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in the development and progression of cancer. Clin Sci (Lond). 2009;118(Pt 5):315-332.

Godsland IF. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in the development and progression of cancer. Clinical science (London, England : 1979). Mar 2010;118(5):315-332.

Golbidi S, Badran M, Laher I. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid. Front Pharmacol. 2011;2:69.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Acarbose. www.clinicalkey.com. Copyright 2015a Elsevier, Inc. Accessed 8/12/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Colesevelam. Copyright 2014 Elsevier, Inc. www.clinicalkey.com. Last updated 1/28/2014. Accessed 9/9/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Lorcaserin. Copyright 2015b Elsevier, Inc. www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed 7/17/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Metformin. Copyright 2015c Elsevier, Inc. www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed 7/16/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Pioglitazone. Copyright 2013 Elsevier, Inc. www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed 9/9/2015.

Goldberg AD, Becker LC, Bonsall R, Cohen JD, Ketterer MW, Kaufman PG, . . . Sheps DS. Ischemic, hemodynamic, and neurohormonal responses to mental and exercise stress. Experience from the Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia Study (PIMI). Circulation. Nov 15 1996;94(10):2402-2409.

Goldfine AB, Fonseca V, Jablonski KA, Pyle L, Staten MA, Shoelson SE. The effects of salsalate on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine. Mar 16 2010;152(6):346-357.

Gomes AP, Price NL, Ling AJY, Moslehi JJ, Montgomery MK, Rajman L, . . . Sinclair DA. Declining NAD(+) Induces a Pseudohypoxic State Disrupting Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Aging. Cell. 2013;155(7):1624-1638.

Gomes MB, Negrato CA. Alpha-lipoic acid as a pleiotropic compound with potential therapeutic use in diabetes and other chronic diseases. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2014;6:80.

Gonzalez-Reyes RE, Aliev G, Avila-Rodrigues M, Barreto GE. Alterations in Glucose Metabolism on Cognition: A Possible Link Between Diabetes and Dementia. Current pharmaceutical design. 2016;22(7):812-818.

Goto T, Horita M, Nagai H, et al. Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, inhibits carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56:435-445.

Goto T, Teraminami A, Lee J, et al. Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders via activation of adiponectin signaling followed by enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle in obese-diabetic mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:768-776.

Gotsis E, Anagnostis P, Mariolis A, Vlachou A, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A. Health benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: an update of research over the last 5 years. Angiology. Apr 2015;66(4):304-318.

Gower BA, Goss AM. A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes. The Journal of nutrition. Jan 2015;145(1):177s-183s.

Graff CL, Pollack GM. Nasal drug administration: potential for targeted central nervous system delivery. J Pharm Sci. 2005;94:1187-1195.

Greb A, Bitsch R. Comparative bioavailability of various thiamine derivatives after oral administration. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. Apr 1998;36(4):216-221.

Greer EL, Dowlatshahi D, Banko MR, et al. An AMPK-FOXO pathway mediates longevity induced by a novel method of dietary restriction in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2007;17(19):1646-56.

Gregg EW. Trends in death rates among U.S. adults with and without diabetes between 1997 and 2006: findings from the National Health Interview Survey. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(6):1252-1257.

Gu S, Shi J, Tang Z, et al. Comparison of glucose lowering effect of metformin and acarbose in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0126704.

Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. [Oral magnesium supplementation: an adjuvant alternative to facing the worldwide challenge of type 2 diabetes?] Cir Cir. 2014;82(3):282-9.

Gums JG. Magnesium in cardiovascular and other disorders. American journal of health-system pharmacy: AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Aug 1 2004;61(15):1569-1576.

Guo J, Zhao X. [Free-radical theory and the antisenescence effect of fruits and vegetables]. Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research. May 30 1999;28(3):190-192.

Gupta A, Bisht B, Dey CS. Peripheral insulin-sensitizer drug metformin ameliorates neuronal insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s-like changes. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60(6):910-20.

Haidar A, Legault L, Messier V, Mitre TM, Leroux C, Rabasa-Lhoret R. Comparison of dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy for glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: an open-label randomised controlled crossover trial. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. Jan 2015;3(1):17-26.

Halmos T, Suba I. [Alzheimer's disease and diabetes - the common pathogenesis]. Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica: a Magyar Pszichofarmakologiai Egyesulet lapja = official journal of the Hungarian Association of Psychopharmacology. Mar 2016;18(1):5-19.

Hamdy O, Porramatikul S, Al-Ozairi E. Metabolic obesity: the paradox between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Current diabetes reviews. Nov 2006;2(4):367-373.

Hamilton SJ, Chew GT, Watts GF. Coenzyme Q10 improves endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes care. May 2009;32(5):810-812.

Hammes HP, Du X, Edelstein D, et al. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevens experiemental diabetic retinopathy. Nat Med. 2003;9(3):294-9.

Handa K, Inukai K, Onuma H, Kudo A, Nakagawa F, Tsugawa K, . . . Ishida H. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice. PloS one. 2014;9(8):e104948.

Hanefeld M, Cagatay M, Petrowitsch T, et al. Acarbose reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients: a meta-analysis of seven long-term studies. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(1):10-6.

Hanefeld M. The role of acarbose in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of diabetes and its complications. Jul-Aug 1998;12(4):228-237.

Hansawasdi C, Kawabata J. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves on Caco-2. Fitoterapia. Dec 2006;77(7-8):568-573.

Hansen J, Rinnov A, Krogh-Madsen R, Fischer CP, Andreasen AS, Berg RM, . . . Plomgaard P. Plasma follistatin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes: relationship to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and systemic low-grade inflammation. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. Sep 2013;29(6):463-472.

Hanssen NM, Beulens JW, van Dieren S, Scheijen JL, van der AD, Spijkerman AM, . . . Schalkwijk CG. Plasma advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a case-cohort study with a median follow-up of 10 years (EPIC-NL). Diabetes. Jan 2015;64(1):257-265.

Hardie DG. AMPK: a target for drugs and natural products with effects on both diabetes and cancer. Diabetes. 2013;62(7):2164-2172.

Hargrove JL, Greenspan P, Hartle DK, et al. Inhibition of aromatase and alpha-amylase by flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Sorghum bicolor bran extracts. J Med Food. 2011;14(7-8):799-807.

Hata A, Doi Y, Ninomiya T, Mukai N, Hirakawa Y, Hata J, . . . Kiyohara Y. Magnesium intake decreases Type 2 diabetes risk through the improvement of insulin resistance and inflammation: the Hisayama Study. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Dec 2013;30(12):1487-1494.

Haupt E, Ledermann H, Kopcke W. Benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy--a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study). International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. Feb 2005;43(2):71-77.

Hausenblas HA, Schoulda JA, Smoliga JM. Resveratrol treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological management in type 2 diabetes mellitus-systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015;59:147-159.

Heinemann L, Benesch C, DeVries JH. AP@home: The Artificial Pancreas Is Now at Home. J Diabetes Sci Technol. Feb 16 2016.

Heinemann L, Fleming GA, Petrie JR, Holl RW, Bergenstal RM, Peters AL. Insulin Pump Risks and Benefits: A Clinical Appraisal of Pump Safety Standards, Adverse Event Reporting, and Research Needs A Joint Statement of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Technology Working Group. Diabetes care. 2015;38(4):716-722.

Heinemann L. The failure of exubera: are we beating a dead horse? Journal of diabetes science and technology. May 2008;2(3):518-529.

Hemmerle H, Burger HJ, Below P, Schubert G, Rippel R, Schindler PW, . . . Herling AW. Chlorogenic acid and synthetic chlorogenic acid derivatives: novel inhibitors of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate translocase. Journal of medicinal chemistry. Jan 17 1997;40(2):137-145.

Henry RR, Mudaliar SR, Howland WC 3rd, et al. Inhaled insulin using the AERx Insulin Diabetes Management System in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(3):754-9.

Henry-Vitrac C, Ibarra A, Roller M, Merillon JM, Vitrac X. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the inhibition of human hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity in vitro by Svetol, a standardized decaffeinated green coffee extract. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Apr 14 2010;58(7):4141-4144.

Higdon J, Drake V, Angelo G. Linus Pauling Insitute. Micronutrient Information Center. Essential Fatty Acids. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids#introduction. Last updated 4/2014. Accessed 9/3/2015.

Higdon J, Drake V, Hagen TM. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Lipoic Acid. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/dietary-factors/lipoic-acid. Last updated 1/2012. Accessed 9/1/2015.

Higdon J, Drake V, Liu S. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/food-beverages/glycemic-index-glycemic-load. Last updated 2/2009. Accessed 7/22/2015.

Higuchi O, Nakagawa K, Tsuzuki T, et al. Aminophospholipid glycation and its inhibitor screening system: a new role of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate as the inhibitor. J Lipid Res. 2006;47(5):964-74.

Hipkiss AR. Glycation, ageing and carnosine: are carnivorous diets beneficial? Mech Ageing Dev. 2005;126:1034-1039.

Hiraga T, Myoui A, Hashimoto N, Sasaki A, Hata K, Morita Y, . . . Yoneda T. Bone-derived IGF mediates crosstalk between bone and breast cancer cells in bony metastases. Cancer research. Aug 15 2012;72(16):4238-4249.

Hocking S, Samocha-Bonet D, Milner KL, Greenfield JR, Chisholm DJ. Adiposity and insulin resistance in humans: the role of the different tissue and cellular lipid depots. Endocrine reviews. Aug 2013;34(4):463-500.

Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, et al. Coenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(11):1137-42.

Hoehn AN, Stockert AL. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone. Nutr Metab Insights. 2012;5:77-83.

Hoggard N, Cruickshank M, Moar, K, et al. A single supplement of a standardized bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (36% wet weight anthocyanins) modifies glycaemic response in individuals with type 2 diabetes controlled by lifestyle. J Nutr Sci. 2013;2:e22.

Hokayem M, Blond E, Vidal H, Lambert K, Meugnier E, Feillet-Coudray C, . . . Avignon A. Grape polyphenols prevent fructose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes care. Jun 2013;36(6):1454-1461.

Hosoe K, Kitano M, Kishida H, Kubo H, Fujii K, Kitahara M. Study on safety and bioavailability of ubiquinol (Kaneka QH) after single and 4-week multiple oral administration to healthy volunteers. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology: RTP. Feb 2007;47(1):19-28.

Hou G, Zhang S, Zhang X, et al. Clinical pathological characteristics and prognostic analysis of 1,013 breast cancer patients with diabetes. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:807-816.

Hruby A, Meigs JB, O’Donnel CJ, et al. Higher magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged Americans.

Huang CC, Weng SF, Tsai KT, Chen PJ, Lin HJ, Wang JJ, . . . Hsu CC. Long-term Mortality Risk After Hyperglycemic Crisis Episodes in Geriatric Patients With Diabetes: A National Population-Based Cohort Study. Diabetes care. May 2015;38(5):746-751.

Huang, Y, Cai X, Qiu M, et al. Prediabetes and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2014;57(11):2261-9.

Humpert PM, Djuric Z, Zeuge U, Oikonomou D, Seregin Y, Laine K, . . . Bierhaus A. Insulin stimulates the clonogenic potential of angiogenic endothelial progenitor cells by IGF-1 receptor-dependent signaling. Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). May-Jun 2008;14(5-6):301-308.

Hung CT. Effects of high-fructose (90%) corn syrup on plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. Taiwan yi xue hui za zhi. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. Sep 1989;88(9):883-885.

Huo Y, Li J, Qin X, et al. Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(13):1325-35.

Hur KY, Lee MS. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders. Diabetes Metab J. Jun 2015;39(3):198-203.

Huyen VTT, Phan DV, Thang P, et al. Antidiabetic effects of add-on Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract therapy with sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetic patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:452313.

Huyen VTT, Phan DV, Thang P, et al. Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Nutr Metab. 2013;2013:765383.

Hyassat D, Al Sitri E, Batieha A, et al. Prevalence of hypomagnesaemia among obese type 2 diabetic patients attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG). Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2014;12(3):e17796.

Ibrahimpasic K. Alpha lipoic acid and glycaemic control in diabetic neuropathies at type 2 diabetes treatment. Med Arch. 2013;67(1):7-9.

IDF. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Misconceptions. Available at: http://www.idf.org/worlddiabetesday/toolkit/gp/diabetes-misconceptions. Last updated: 2014. Accessed 4/15/2015.

IDF. International Diabetes Federation. Guideline for Management of Postmeal Glucose. http://www.idf.org/webdata/docs/Guideline_PMG_final.pdf. Copyright 2007. Accessed 8/24/2015.

Imai S, Kiess W. Therapeutic potential of SIRT1 and NAMPT-mediated NAD biosynthesis in type 2 diabetes. Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition). 2009;14:2983-2995.

Indulekha K, Anjana RM, Surendar J, Mohan V. Association of visceral and subcutaneous fat with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory markers in Asian

Indians (CURES-113). Clin Biochem. Mar 2011;44(4):281-287.

Innes KE, Vincent HK, Taylor AG. Chronic stress and insulin resistance- related indices of cardiovascular disease risk, part I: neurophysiological responses and pathological sequelae. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007;13(4):46-52.

Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E, Nauck M, . . . Matthews DR. Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Patient-Centered Approach. Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). 2012d;35(6):1364-1379.

Inzucchi SE, Sherman RS, Goldman L (ed.), SchaferAI  (ed.). Goldman's Cecil Medicine, Twenty-Fourth Edition. Chapter 236: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; 1475-1488. Copyright 2012a Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com Accessed: 3/19/2015.

Inzucchi SE, Sherman RS, Goldman L (ed.), SchaferAI  (ed.). Goldman's Cecil Medicine, Twenty-Fourth Edition. Chapter 237: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; 1489-1499. Copyright 2012b Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com Accessed: 3/19/2015.

Inzucchi SE. Diagnosis of Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012c;367(6):542-550.

Ishikawa A, Yamashita H, Hiemori M, Inagaki E, Kimoto M, Okamoto M, . . . Natori Y. Characterization of inhibitors of postprandial hyperglycemia from the leaves of Nerium indicum. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). Apr 2007;53(2):166-173.

Jain R, Kabadi U, Kabadi M. Is beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus reversible? International journal of diabetes in developing countries. Jan 2008;28(1):1-5.

Jakus V, Sandorova E, Kalninova J, et al. Monitoring of glycation, oxidative stress and inflammation in relation to the occurrence of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiol Res. 2014;63:297-309.

Jang HJ, Ridgeway SD, Kim JA. Effects of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305(12):E1444-51.

Jayaprakasha GK, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Ono H, et al. Phenolic constituents in the fruits of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(5):1672-9.

Jayaram S, Hariharan RS, Madhavan R, Periyandavar I, Samra SS. A prospective, parallel group, open-labeled, comparative, multi-centric, active controlled study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and benefits of fixed dose combination of acarbose and metformin versus metformin alone in type 2 diabetes. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. Nov 2010;58:679-682, 687.

JDC. Joslin Diabetes Center. Healthy Eating: Why Does Fat Increase Blood Glucose? http://blog.joslin.org/2011/09/why-does-fat-increase-blood-glucose/. 9/27/2011. Accessed 6/7/2016

Jellinger PS. Focus on incretin-based therapies: targeting the core defects of type 2 diabetes. Postgrad Med. 2011;123(1):53-65.

Johnson AB, Webster JM, Sum CF, Heseltine L, Argyraki M, Cooper BG, Taylor R. The impact of metformin therapy on hepatic glucose production and skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity in overweight type II diabetic patients. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Sep 1993;42(9):1217-1222.

Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Oct 2003;78(4):728-733.

Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahren B, Branell UC, Palsson G, Hansson A, . . . Lindeberg S. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovascular diabetology. 2009;8:35.

Jordan J, Astrup A, Engeli S, Narkiewicz K, Day WW, Finer N. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate: a new drug combination for the treatment of obesity. Journal of hypertension. Jun 2014;32(6):1178-1188.

Jorgensen L, Jenssen T, Joakimsen O, et al. Glycated hemoglobin level is strongly related to the prevalence of carotid artery plaques with high echogenicity in nondiabetic individuals: the Tromso study. Circulation. 2004;110:466-470.

Joshi SR, Ramachandran A, Chadha M, et al. Acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination in the management of type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014;15(11):1611-1620.

Josse RG, McGuire AJ, Saal GB. A review of the economic evidence for acarbose in the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular events in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Int J Clin Pract 2006;60(7):847-855.

Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvado J, Ibarrola-Jurado N, Rabassa-Soler A, Diaz-Lopez A, Guasch-Ferre M, . . . Bullo M. Effect of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jul 2014;100(1):27-35.

Kaaks R. Nutrition, insulin, IGF-1 metabolism and cancer risk: a summary of epidemiological evidence. Novartis Foundation symposium. 2004;262:247-260; discussion 260-268.

Kaats GR, Keith SC, Keith PL, et al. A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge. Nutr J. 2011;10:42.

Kabagambe EK, Judd SE, Howard VJ, Zakai NA, Jenny NS, Hsieh M, . . . Cushman M. Inflammation biomarkers and risk of all-cause mortality in the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke cohort. American journal of epidemiology. Aug 1 2011;174(3):284-292.

Kaess BM, Pedley A, Massaro JM, Murabito J, Hoffmann U, Fox CS. The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat, a metric of body fat distribution, is a unique correlate of cardiometabolic risk. Diabetologia. Oct 2012;55(10):2622-2630.

Kajbaf F, De Broe ME, Lalau JD. Therapeutic Concentrations of Metformin: A Systematic Review. Clinical pharmacokinetics. Apr 2016;55(4):439-459.

Kalyani RR, Egan JM. Diabetes and altered glucose metabolism with aging. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2013;42(2):333-347.

Kammoun HL, Kraakman MJ, Febbraio MA. Adipose tissue inflammation in glucose metabolism. Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders. Mar 2014;15(1):31-44.

Kar P, Laight D, Rooprai HK, Shaw KM, Cummings M. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. May 2009;26(5):526-531.

Karhapaa P, Malkki M, Laakso M. Isolated low HDL cholesterol. An insulin-resistant state. Diabetes. Mar 1994;43(3):411-417.

Karley AJ, Ashford DA, Minto LM, Pritchard J, Douglas AE. The significance of gut sucrase activity for osmoregulation in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of insect physiology. Dec 2005;51(12):1313-1319.

Karoff P. Harvard Paulson School Communications. In: Harvard gazette [online]. Artificial pancreas system aimed at type 1 diabetes mellitus. http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2016/01/artificial-pancreas-system-aimed-at-type-1-diabetes-mellitus/. 1/4/2016. Accessed 3/30/2016.

Kasznicki J, Sliwinska A, Drzewoski J. Metformin in cancer prevention and therapy. Annals of translational medicine. Jun 2014;2(6):57.

Kato M, Noda M, Suga H, et al. Fasting plasma glucose and incidence of diabetes – implication for the threshold for impaired fasting glucose: results from the population-based Omiya MA Cohort study. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16:857-861.

Kaur J. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiology research and practice. 2014;2014:943162.

Kaur M, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. The Journal of nutrition. Sep 2009;139(9):1806S-1812S.

Kelly CT, Mansoor J, Dohm GL, Chapman WH, 3rd, Pender JRt, Pories WJ. Hyperinsulinemic syndrome: the metabolic syndrome is broader than you think. Surgery. Aug 2014;156(2):405-411.

Khan NA, Auranen M, Paetau I, Pirinen E, Euro L, Forsstrom S, . . . Suomalainen A. Effective treatment of mitochondrial myopathy by nicotinamide riboside, a vitamin B3. EMBO molecular medicine. Jun 2014;6(6):721-731.

Khanal RC, Howard LR, Wilkes SE, Rogers TJ, Prior RL. Effect of dietary blueberry pomace on selected metabolic factors associated with high fructose feeding in growing Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of medicinal food. Sep 2012;15(9):802-810.

Kim B, Backus C, Oh S, et al. Hyperglycemia-induced tau cleavage in vitro and in vivo: a possible link between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;34(3):727-39.

Kim HJ, Oh GS, Shen A, Lee SB, Khadka D, Pandit A, . . . So HS. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: An essential factor in preserving hearing in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Hear Res. Aug 2015;326:30-39.

Kim J, Kim CS, Lee YM, Sohn E, Jo K, Kim JS. Vaccinium myrtillus extract prevents or delays the onset of diabetes--induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown. International journal of food sciences and nutrition. Mar 2015;66(2):236-242.

Kim J, Park Y. Antidiabetic effect of sorghum extract on hepatic gluconeogenesis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab. 2012;9:106.

Kim JY, Ok HM, Kim J, Park SW, Kwon SW, Kwon O. Mulberry leaf extract improves postprandial glucose response in prediabetic subjects: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Journal of medicinal food. Mar 2015;18(3):306-313.

Kim W, Egan JM. The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment. Pharmacol Rev. 2008;60(4):470-512.

Kimura T, Nakagawa K, Kubota H, Kojima Y, Goto Y, Yamagishi K, . . . Miyazawa T. Food-Grade Mulberry Powder Enriched with 1-Deoxynojirimycin Suppresses the Elevation of Postprandial Blood Glucose in Humans. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2007;55(14):5869-5874.

King MK, Pardo M, Cheng Y, Downey K, Jope RS, Beurel E. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors: Rescuers of cognitive impairments. Pharmacology & therapeutics. Jan 2014;141(1):1-12.

Kinne RK, Castaneda F. SGLT inhibitors as new therapeutic tools in the treatment of diabetes. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. 2011(203):105-126.

Kiraly O, Gong G, Olipitz W, et al. Inflammation-induced cell proliferation potentiates DNA damage-induced mutations in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2015;11(2):e1004901.

Kishore P. Merck Manual. Professional Version. Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/diabetes-mellitus-and-disorders-of-carbohydrate-metabolism/diabetes-mellitus-dm. Last update: 6/2014. Accessed 4/2/2015.

Kjaer M, Secher NH, Galbo H. Physical stress and catecholamine release. Bailliere's clinical endocrinology and metabolism. May 1987;1(2):279-298.

Klonoff DC. The Beneficial Effects of a Paleolithic Diet on Type 2 Diabetes and Other Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 2009;3(6):1229-1232.

Knapen LM, van Dalem J, Keulemans YC, van Erp NP, Bazelier MT, De Bruin ML, . . . Driessen JH. Use of incretin agents and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based cohort study. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. Mar 2016;18(3):258-265.

Koehler KM, Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ, Allen RH, Stabler SP, Rimm EB. Association of folate intake and serum homocysteine in elderly persons according to vitamin supplementation and alcohol use. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2001;73(3):628-637.

Kolahdouz Mohammadi R, Hosseinzadeh-Attar MJ, Eshraghian MR, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on metabolic status of type 2 diabetic patients. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2013;59(2):231-6.

Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen O, Kirjavainen PV, et al. Bilberries reduce low-grade inflammation in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56(10):1501-10.

Koloverou E, Esposito K, Giugliano D, et al. The effect of Mediterranean diet on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of 10 prospective studies and 136,846 participants. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 2014;63:903-911.

Kolte D, Vijayaraghavan K, Khera S, et al. Role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiol Rev. 2014;22(4):182-92.

Kovatchev BP, Renard E, Cobelli C, Zisser HC, Keith-Hynes P, Anderson SM, . . . Doyle FJ, 3rd. Safety of outpatient closed-loop control: first randomized crossover trials of a wearable artificial pancreas. Diabetes care. Jul 2014;37(7):1789-1796.

Kraegen EW, Cooney GJ. Free fatty acids and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Current Opinion in Lipidology. 2008;19:235-241.

Krogh-Madsen R, Plomgaard P, Moller K, Mittendorfer B, Pedersen BK. Influence of TNF-alpha and IL-6 infusions on insulin sensitivity and expression of IL-18 in humans. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. Jul 2006;291(1):E108-114.

Krog-Mikkelsen I, Hels O, Tetens I, et al. The effects of L-arabinose on intestinal sucrose activity: dose-response studies in vitro and in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):472-478.

Kromhout D, Geleijnse JM, de Goede J, Oude Griep LM, Mulder BJ, de Boer MJ, . . . Giltay EJ. n-3 fatty acids, ventricular arrhythmia-related events, and fatal myocardial infarction in postmyocardial infarction patients with diabetes. Diabetes care. Dec 2011;34(12):2515-2520.

Kumar B, Gupta SK, Nag TC, et al. Green tea prevents hyperglycemia-induced retinal oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ophthalmic Res. 2012;47(2):103-8.

Lagger G, Chambouleyron M, Correia JC, Sittarame F, Miganne G, Lasserre Moutet A, Golay A. [The cure of type 2 diabetes and patient education]. Revue medicale suisse. Mar 25 2015;11(467):715-716, 718-719.

Lai YJ, Hu HY, Chen HH, Chou P. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Risk of Acute Pancreatitis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Medicine. Oct 2015;94(43):e1906.

Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM. Supplemental ubiquinol in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. BioFactors (Oxford, England). 2008;32(1-4):119-128.

Lee HJ, Hong YS, Jun W, Yang SJ. Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rodent Model of Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of medicinal food. May 14 2015.

Lee SH, Min KJ. Caloric restriction and its mimetics. BMB reports. Apr 2013;46(4):181-187.

Lee SM. The effect of chronic alpha-glycosidase inhibition on diabetic nephropathy in the db/db mouse. Diabetes. Mar 1982;31(3):249-254.

Lee TC, Ivester P, Hester AG, Sergeant S, Case LD, Morgan T, . . . Chilton FH. The impact of polyunsaturated fatty acid-based dietary supplements on disease biomarkers in a metabolic syndrome/diabetes population. Lipids in health and disease. 2014;13:196.

Lee WJ, Almulaifi A. Recent advances in bariatric/metabolic surgery: appraisal of clinical evidence. Journal of biomedical research. Apr 2015;29(2):98-104.

Lee WJ, Kim M, Park HS, Kim HS, Jeon MJ, Oh KS, . . . Park JY. AMPK activation increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle by activating PPARalpha and PGC-1. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Feb 3 2006;340(1):291-295.

Lee Y, Berglund ED, XinXin Y, et al. Hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 2 diabetes requires insulin-resistant alpha cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111(36):13217-13222.

Lefevre M, Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, Smith JV, Martin CK, Rood JC, . . . Ravussin E. Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals. Atherosclerosis. Mar 2009;203(1):206-213.

Lehrke M, Broedl UC, Biller-Friedmann IM, et al. Serum concentrations of cortisol, interleukin 6, leptin and adiponectin predict stress induced insulin resistance in acute inflammatory reactions. Critical Care 2008;12:R157.

Levitan EB, Song Y, Ford ES, et al. Is nondiabetic hyperglycemia a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(19):2147-55.

Li L, Shen J, Bala MM, Busse JW, Ebrahim S, Vandvik PO, . . . Sun X. Incretin treatment and risk of pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised and non-randomised studies. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2014;348:g2366.

Li S, Flint A, Pai JK, Forman JP, Hu FB, Willett WC, . . . Rimm EB. Low carbohydrate diet from plant or animal sources and mortality among myocardial infarction survivors. J Am Heart Assoc. Oct 2014;3(5):e001169.

Li X, Song D, Leng SX. Link between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease: from epidemiology to mechanism and treatment. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:549-560.

Lim EL, Hollingsworth KG, Aribisala BS, Chen MJ, Mathers JC, Taylor R. Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol. Diabetologia. Oct 2011;54(10):2506-2514.

Lin H-J, Lee B-C, Ho Y-L, et al. Postprandial glucose improves the risk prediction of cardiovascular death beyond the metabolic syndrome in the nondiabetic population. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1721-1726.

Lindberg S, Skov Jensen J, Bjerre M, et al. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015;22(3):276-283.

Littarru GP, Tiano L. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments. Mol Biotechnol. 2007;37(1):31-7.

Liu CY, Huang CJ, Huang LH, Chen IJ, Chiu JP, Hsu CH. Effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and lipid abnormalities: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial. PloS one. 2014;9(3):e91163.

Liu HW, Chan YC, Wang MF, Wei CC, Chang SJ. Dietary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate supplementation counteracts aging-associated skeletal muscle insulin resistance and fatty liver in senescence-accelerated mouse. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Jul 8 2015.

Liu J, Gao F, Ji B, et al. Anthocyanins-rich extract of wild Chinese blueberry protects glucolipotoxicity-induced INS832/13 beta-cell against dysfunction and death. J Food Sci Technol. 2015;52(5):3022-9.

Liu J, Zhang L, Ren Y, Gao Y, Kang L, Qiao Q. Anticancer and immunoregulatory activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharides in H22 tumor-bearing mice. International journal of biological macromolecules. Aug 2014;69:1-4.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatik A, et al. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4(8):118-126.

Lontchi-Yimagou E, Sobngwi E, Matsha TE, et al. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation. Curr Diab Rep. 2013;13:435-444.

Lopez-Alarcon M, Perichart-Perera O, Flores-Huerta S, et al. Excessive refines carbohydrates and scarce micronutrients intakes increase inflammatory mediators nd insulin resistance in prepubertal and pubertal obese children independently of obesity. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:849031.

Lordan S, Smyth TJ, Soler-Vila A, Stanton C, Ross RP. The alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts. Food chemistry. Dec 1 2013;141(3):2170-2176.

Lu HF, Chen YS, Yang JS, et al. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via inhibition of cyclin E and induction of apoptosis via activation of caspases-3 and -9 in human lung cancer A-549 cells. In Vivo. 2008;22(2):215-21.

Lu T, Sheng H, Wu J, et al. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutr Res. 2012;32(6):408-12.

Luevano-Contreras C, Garay-Sevilla ME, Wrobel K, et al. Dietary advanced glycation end products restriction diminishes inflammation markers and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2013;52(1):22-26.

Madonna R, De Caterina R. Atherogenesis and diabetes: focus on insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2012;65(4):309-313.

Magistrelli A, Chezem JC. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112:1806-1809.

Magnusson I, Rothman DL, Katz LD, Shulman RG, Shulman GI. Increased rate of gluconeogenesis in type II diabetes mellitus. A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study. The Journal of clinical investigation. Oct 1992;90(4):1323-1327.

Mah E, Noh SK, Ballard KD, et al. Supplementation of a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols in healthy men protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial hyperglycemia. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:196-203.

Mah E, Pei R, Guo Y, et al. Gamma-tocopherol-rich supplementation additively improves vascular endothelial function during smoking cessation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;65:1291-9.

Mahajan R, Gupta K. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use. Journal of young pharmacists: JYP. Oct 2010;2(4):428-429.

Malekshahi Moghadam A, Saedisomeolia A, Djalali M, Djazayery A, Pooya S, Sojoudi F. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Singapore medical journal. Sep 2012;53(9):615-619.

Malik FS, Taplin CE. Insulin therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Paediatric drugs. Apr 2014;16(2):141-150.

Maqbool M, Mobashir M, Hoda N. Pivotal role of glycogen synthase kinase-3: A therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. European journal of medicinal chemistry. Jan 1 2016;107:63-81.

Martineau LC, Couture A, Spoor D, et al. Antidiabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Phyomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):612-23.

Martin-Montalvo A, Mercken EM, Mitchell SJ, et al. Metformin improves healthspan and lifespan in mice. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2192.

Masharani U, Sherchan P, Schloetter M, Stratford S, Xiao A, Sebastian A, . . . Frassetto L. Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes. European journal of clinical nutrition. Aug 2015;69(8):944-948.

Masterjohn C, Mah E, Guo Y, et al. Gamma-tocopherol abolishes postprandial increases in plasma methylglyoxal following an oral dose of glucose in healthy, college-aged men. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:292-298.

Masters CJ, Crane DI. On the role of the peroxisome in ontogeny, ageing and degenerative disease. Mechanisms of ageing and development. May 12 1995;80(2):69-83.

Masumoto S, Akimoto Y, Oike H, et al. Dietary phloridzin reduces blood glucose levels and reverses Sglt1 expression in the small intestine in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:4651-4656.

Matsui T, Ishikawa T, Ito H, Okamoto M, Inoue K, Lee MC, . . . Soya H. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise. The Journal of physiology. Feb 1 2012;590(Pt 3):607-616.

Matsuo T, Odaka H, Ikeda H. Effect of an intestinal disaccharidase inhibitor (AO-128) on obesity and diabetes. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jan 1992;55(1 Suppl):314s-317s.

Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions page. Type 1 diabetes. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/basics/definition/CON-20019573?p=1. 8/2/2014. Accessed 8/12/2015.

Mayo JJ, Kravitz L. Glycemic Index: Weight Loss Sham or Sensation? https://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/glycemicUNM.html. Accessed 3/31/2016

Mazza A, Fruci B, Garinis GA, et al. The role of metformin in the management of NAFLD. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:716404.

Mazzola N. Review of current and emerging therapies in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Manag Care. 2012;18(1Suppl):S17-26.

McCreight LJ, Bailey CJ, Pearson ER. Metformin and the gastrointestinal tract. Diabetologia. Mar 2016;59(3):426-435.

McEwen B, Morel-Kopp M, Tofler G, et al. Effect of omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk in diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2010;36(4):565-584.

McIntosh B, Cameron C, Singh SR, Yu C, Ahuja T, Welton NJ, Dahl M. Second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy: a systematic review and mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis. Open medicine: a peer-reviewed, independent, open-access journal. 2011;5(1):e35-48.

McLaughlin T, Lamendola C, Liu A, Abbasi F. Preferential fat deposition in subcutaneous versus visceral depots is associated with insulin sensitivity. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Nov 2011;96(11):E1756-1760.

McPherson TC. Salsalate for arthritis: a clinical evaluation. Clinical therapeutics. 1984;6(4):388-403.

Megalli S, Davies NM, Roufogalis BD. Anti-hyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the Zucker fatty rat. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9(3):281-91.

Meigs JB, Nathan DM, Wilson PW, Cupples LA, Singer DE. Metabolic risk factors worsen continuously across the spectrum of nondiabetic glucose tolerance. The Framingham Offspring Study. Ann Intern Med. Apr 1 1998;128(7):524-533.

Meister B. Control of food intake via leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Vitamins and hormones. 2000;59:265-304.

Meloni AR, DeYoung MB, Lowe C, Parkes DG. GLP-1 receptor activated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells: mechanism and glucose dependence. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. 2013;15(1):15-27.

Melzig MF, Funke I. [Inhibitors of alpha-amylase from plants--a possibility to treat diabetes mellitus type II by phytotherapy?]. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946). 2007;157(13-14):320-324.

Meneilly GS, Ryan EA, Radziuk J, Lau DC, Yale JF, Morais J, . . . Elahi D. Effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with diabetes. Diabetes care. 2000;23(8):1162-1167.

Meng B, Li J, Cao H. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin on diabetes mellitus and its complications. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(11):2101-13.

Meng S, Cao J, Feng Q, et al. Roles of chlorogenic acid on regulating glucose and lipids metabolism: a review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:801457.

Michaud M, Balardy L, Moulis G, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines, aging, and age-related diseases. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14(12):877-82.

Miklossy J, Qing H, Radenovic A, Kis A, Vileno B, Laszlo F, . . . McGeer PL. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes. Neurobiology of aging. Sep 2010;31(9):1503-1515.

Miles JM, Rule AD, Borlaug BA. Use of metformin in diseases of aging. Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14:490.

Miller AL. The methionine-homocysteine cycle and its effects on cognitive diseases. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Feb 2003;8(1):7-19.

Misbin RI. The phantom of lactic acidosis due to metformin in patients with diabetes. Diabetes care. Jul 2004;27(7):1791-1793.

Mittal K, Katare DP. Shared links between type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease: A review. Diabetes Metab Syndr. Feb 11 2016.

Miyazawa T, Nakagawa K, Shimasaki S, et al. Lipid glycation and protein glycation in diabetes and atherosclerosis. Amino Acids. 2012;42(4):1163-70.

MMSCC. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Integrative Medicine/About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products. https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/treatments/symptom-management/integrative-medicine/herbs/disclaimer?destination=cancer-care%2Fintegrative-medicine%2Fherbs%2Firvingia-gabonensis. Copyright 2015. Accessed 9/9/15.

Moat SJ, Lang D, McDowell IF, Clarke ZL, Madhavan AK, Lewis MJ, Goodfellow J. Folate, homocysteine, endothelial function and cardiovascular disease. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Feb 2004;15(2):64-79.

Moghaddam E, Vogt JA, Wolever TM. The effects of fat and protein on glycemic responses in nondiabetic humans vary with waist circumference, fasting plasma insulin, and dietary fiber intake. The Journal of nutrition. Oct 2006;136(10):2506-2511.

Monteleone G, Buchwald P, Inverardi L, Pileggi A, Ricordi C, Tomei A, Inventors; Nogra Pharma Limited, University of Miami, assignee. Methods of treating diabetes and/or promoting survival of pancreatic islets after transplantation. US patent 14/394,9992013. International Filing Date 4/18/2013.

Monteleone G, Neurath MF, Ardizzone S, Di Sabatino A, Fantini MC, Castiglione F, . . . Pallone F. Mongersen, an Oral SMAD7 Antisense Oligonucleotide, and Crohn’s Disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372(12):1104-1113.

Moon JK, Yoo HS, Shibamoto T. Role of roasting conditions in the level of chlorogenic acid content in coffee beans: correlation with coffee acidity. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Jun 24 2009;57(12):5365-5369.

Mooradian AD, Thurman JE. Drug therapy of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Drugs. Jan 1999;57(1):19-29.

Morales DR, Morris AD. Metformin in cancer treatment and prevention. Annu Rev Med. 2015;66:17-29.

Morris G, Berk M. The Putative Use of Lithium in Alzheimer's Disease. Current Alzheimer research. Feb 18 2016.

Moshetova LK, Vorob'eva IV, Alekseev IB, Mikhaleva LG. [Results of the use of antioxidant and angioprotective agents in type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration]. Vestnik oftalmologii. May-Jun 2015;131(3):34-40, 42-34.

Movahed A, Nabipour I, Lieben Louis X, et al. Antihyperlgycemic effects of short term resveratrol supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013.

Mozafari M, Nekooeian AA, Panjeshahin MR, et al. The effects of resveratrol in rats with simultaneous type 2 diabetes and renal hypertension: a study of antihypertensive mechanisms. Iran J Med. 2015;40(2):152-60.

Mudaliar S, Henry RR. Inhaled insulin in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. Jun 2007;9 Suppl 1:S83-92.

Mudra M, Ercan-Fang N, Zhong L, Furne J, Levitt M. Influence of Mulberry Leaf Extract on the Blood Glucose and Breath Hydrogen Response to Ingestion of 75 g Sucrose by Type 2 Diabetic and Control Subjects. Diabetes care. 2007;30(5):1272-1274.

Muntoni S, Muntoni S, Draznin B. Effects of chronic hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant patients. Curr Diabetes Reports. 2008;8:233-238.

Mussig K, Staiger H, Kantartzis K, Fritsche A, Kanz L, Haring HU. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of malignancy: is there a strategy to identify a subphenotype of patients with increased susceptibility to endogenous and exogenous hyperinsulinism? Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Mar 2011;28(3):276-286.

Muthenna P, Raghu G, Akileshwari C, et al. Inhibition of protein glycation by procyanidin-B2 enriched fraction of cinnamon: delay of diabetic cataract in rats. IUBMB Life. 2013;65(11):941-50.

Muti P, Quattrin T, Grant BJ, et al. Fasting glucose is a risk factor for breast cancer: a prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(11):1361-8.

Nabavi SF, Thiagarajan R, Rastrelli L, et al. Curcumin: a natural product for diabetes and its complications. Curr Top Med Chem. 2015;Jun 19.

Nagai R, Shirakawa J, Ohno R, et al. Inhibition of AGEs formation by natural products, Amino Acids. 2014;46(2):261-6.

Nagel AK, Ahmed-Sarwar N, Werner PM, Cipriano GC, Van Manen RP, Brown JE. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor-Associated Pancreatic Carcinoma: A Review of the FAERS Database. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. Jan 2016;50(1):27-31.

Najafian M, Jahromi MZ, Nowroznejhad J, et al. Phloridzin reduces blood glucose levels and improves lipids metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:5299-5306.

Nakamura A, Terauchi Y. Present status of clinical deployment of glycokinase activators. J Diabetes Invest. 2015;6:124-132.

Nakamura S, Li H, Adijiang A, et al. Pyridoxal phosphate prevents progression of diabetic neuropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22(8):2165-74.

Nakanishi H, Onose S, Kithara E, et al. Effect of environmental conditions on the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(12):2293-6.

Naowaboot J, Pannangpetch P, Kukongviriyapan V, et al. Mulberry leaf extract stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in rat adipocytes. Am J Chin Med. 2012;40(1):163-75.

Napolitano A, Miller S, Nicholls AW, Baker D, Van Horn S, Thomas E, . . . Nunez DJ. Novel gut-based pharmacology of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PloS one. 2014;9(7):e100778.

Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Metformin: current knowledge. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(7):658-664.

Nathan DM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo RA, et al. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance: implications for care. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(3):753-759.

Nauck MA, Friedrich N. Do GLP-1–Based Therapies Increase Cancer Risk? Diabetes care. 2013;36(Supplement 2):S245-S252.

Nawale RB, Mourya VK, Bhise SB. Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins: a cause for complications in diabetes. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2006;43:337-344.

NDIC. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Causes of Diabetes. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/causes/. Last updated: 8/27/2014. Accessed 4/20/2015.

Neumiller JJ, Campbell RK. Technosphere insulin: an inhaled prandial insulin product. BioDrugs: clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy. Jun 2010;24(3):165-172.

Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, et al. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:7.

Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SR. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids Health Dis. 2005;4:12.

Nguyen DV, Shaw LC, Grant MB. Inflammation in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications in diabetes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012;3:170.

Niafar M, Hai F, Porhomayon J, et al. The role of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency: a meta-analysis review. Intern Emerg Med. 2015;10(1):93-102.

Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Brown JB. Normal fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Am J Med. 2008;121:519-524.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/diagnosis-diabetes-prediabetes/Pages/index.aspx. 6/2014c. Accessed 8/12/2015.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/insulin-resistance-prediabetes/Pages/index.aspx. 6/2014a. Accessed 8/12/2015.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Health Information page. What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/gestational-diabetes/Pages/index.aspx. 9/2014b. Accessed 4/25/2016

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/type-2-diabetes-taking-steps-lower-your-risk-diabetes/Pages/index.aspx. 6/2012. Accessed 9/1/2015.

Nikolic A, Kacar A, Lavrnic D, Basta I, Apostolski S. [The effect of benfothiamine in the therapy of diabetic polyneuropathy]. Srp Arh Celok Lek. Nov-Dec 2009;137(11-12):594-600.

Nilsen TI, Vatten LJ. Prospective study of colorectal cancer risk and physical activity, diabetes, blood glucose and BMI: exploring the hyperinsulinaemia hypothesis. British journal of cancer. Feb 2 2001;84(3):417-422.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Meglitinide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0012926/. Copyright 2009 by Cochrance Collaboration. Accessed 8/17/2015.

Noale M, Veronese N, Cavallo Perin P, Pilotto A, Tiengo A, Crepaldi G, Maggi S. Polypharmacy in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral antidiabetic treatment. Acta diabetologica. Apr 2016;53(2):323-330.

Norman J. Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatments of Type 1 Diabetes. http://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/type-1-diabetes/type-1-diabetes 6/7/2016.

Noto H, Goto A, Tsujimoto T, Noda M. Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. PloS one. 2013;8(1):e55030.

Nowlin SY, Hammer MJ, D’Eramo Melkus G. Diet, inflammation, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: an integrative review of the literature. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:542698.

NPG. Nature Publishing Group. Role of insulin-like growth factor 1 in bone metastasis. BoneKEy reports. 2012;1:170.

Nussey S, Whitehead S. Chapter 4: The adrenal gland. In: Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26/.

Nutrients. 2016;8(3):173.

Nwaneri C, Copper H, Bowen-Jones D. Mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Br J Diabetes and Vascular Disease. 2013;13(4):192-207.

O’Neil PM, Smith SR, Weissman NJ, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus: The BLOOM-DM Study. Obesity. 2012;20:1426-1436.

Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum K. Inhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPARgamma and leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene. Lipids in health and disease. 2008;7:44.

Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, et al. The use of Cissu quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis. 2008;7:12.

Ochiai R, Sugiura Y, Shioya Y, Otsuka K, Katsuragi Y, Hashiguchi T. Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults. Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.). Feb 2014;34(2):155-159.

O'Connor PJ, Sperl-Hillen JM. ePocrates online. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Available at: https://online.epocrates.com/u/291124/Type+2+diabetes+mellitus+in+adults. Last updated 1/12/2015. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Odegaard AO, Koh WP, Yuan JM, Gross MD, Pereira MA. Western-style fast food intake and cardiometabolic risk in an Eastern country. Circulation. Jul 10 2012;126(2):182-188.

Ogawa K, Kuse Y, Tsuruma K, Kobayashi S, Shimazawa M, Hara H. Protective effects of bilberry and lingonberry extracts against blue light-emitting diode light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage in vitro. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2014;14:120.

Oh J, Jo SH, Kim JS, Ha KS, Lee JY, Choi HY, . . . Kim YC. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo. International journal of molecular sciences. 2015;16(4):8811-8825.

Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BKH. Chlorogenic acid stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a contributor to the beneficial effects of coffee on diabetes. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32718.

Orgel E, Mittelman SD. The links between insulin resistance, diabetes, and cancer. Curr Diab Rep. 2013;13(2):213-22.

Oron T, Farfel A, Muller I, Miller S, Atlas E, Nimri R, Phillip M. A remote monitoring system for artificial pancreas support is safe, reliable, and user friendly. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. Nov 2014;16(11):699-705.

Ortuno-Sahagun D, Pallas M, Rojas-Mayorquin AE. Oxidative stress in aging: advances in proteomic approaches. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2014;2014:573208.

Ota T. Obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Frontiers in endocrinology. 2014;5:204.

Ouban A, Muraca P, Yeatman T, Coppola D. Expression and distribution of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in human carcinomas. Human pathology. Aug 2003;34(8):803-808.

Page GL, Laight D, Cummings MH. Thiamine deficiency in diabetes mellitus and the impact of thiamine replacement on glucose metabolism and vascular disease. International journal of clinical practice. Jun 2011;65(6):684-690.

Pagliuca FW, Millman JR, Gurtler M, et al. Generation of functional human pancreatic beta cells in vitro. Cell. 2014;159(2):428-439.

Pai JK, Cahill LE, Hu FB, et al. Hemoglobin A1C is associated with increased risk of incident coronary heart disease among apparently healthy, nondiabetic men and women. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000077.

Palau-Rodriguez M, Tulipani S, Isabel Queipo-Ortuno M, Urpi-Sarda M, Tinahones FJ, Andres-Lacueva C. Metabolomic insights into the intricate gut microbial-host interaction in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1151.

Paolisso G, Scheen A, D'Onofrio F, Lefebvre P. Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia. Sep 1990;33(9):511-514.

Paradis ME, Couture P, Lamarche B. A randomized crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(6):913-9.

Park JH, Lee SH, Chung IM, et al. Sorghum extract exerts an antidiabetic effect by improving insulin sensitivity via PPAR-gamma in mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutr Res Pract. 2012;6(4):322-327.

Park MH, Kim DH, Lee EK, Kim ND, Im DS, Lee J, . . . Chung HY. Age-related inflammation and insulin resistance: a review of their intricate interdependency. Archives of pharmacal research. Dec 2014;37(12):1507-1514.

Park S, Karuna U, Jeoung NH, et al. Physiological and therapeutic application of alpha lipoic acid. Curr Med Chem. 2014;21(32):3636-45.

Park SA. A common pathogenic mechanism linking type-2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease: evidence from animal models. Journal of clinical neurology (Seoul, Korea). Mar 2011;7(1):10-18.

Park SH, Huh TL, Kim SY, et al. Antiobesity effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract (actiponin): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Obesity. 2014;22:63-71.

Pasinetti GM, Wang J, Ho L, Zhao W, Dubner L. Roles of Resveratrol and Other Grape-Derived Polyphenols in Alzheimer's Disease Prevention and Treatment. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Oct 11 2014.

Patil HR, Al Badarin FJ, Al Shami HA, Bhatti SK, Lavie CJ, Bell DSH, O'Keefe JH. Meta-Analysis of Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors on Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. 2012. American Journal of Cardiology.110(6):826-833.

Peng H, Want LL, Aroda VR. Safety and Tolerability of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists Utilizing Data from the Exenatide Clinical Trial Development Program. Current diabetes reports. May 2016;16(5):44.

Pernicova I, Korbonits M. Metformin--mode of action and clinical implications for diabetes and cancer. Nature reviews. Endocrinology. Mar 2014;10(3):143-156.

Peyser T, Dassau E, Breton M, Skyler JS. The artificial pancreas: current status and future prospects in the management of diabetes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Apr 2014;1311:102-123.

Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, et al. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(6):2017-29

Poquette NM, Gu X, Lee SO. Grain sorghum muffin reduces glucose and insulin responses in men. Food Funct. 2014;5(5):894-9.

Pories WJ, Dohm GL. Diabetes: have we got it all wrong? Hyperinsulinism as the culprit: surgery provides the evidence. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(12):2438-2442.

Pories WJ, Swanson MS, MacDonald KG, Long SB, Morris PG, Brown BM, . . . et al. Who would have thought it? An operation proves to be the most effective therapy for adult-onset diabetes mellitus. Ann Surg. Sep 1995;222(3):339-350; discussion 350-332.

Poulose N, Raju R. Sirtuin regulation in aging and injury. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Nov 2015;1852(11):2442-2455.

Prentki M, Nolan CJ. Islet β cell failure in type 2 diabetes. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2006;116(7):1802-1812.

Pryor R, Cabreiro F. Repurposing metformin: an old drug with new tricks in its binding pockets. The Biochemical journal. Nov 1 2015;471(3):307-322.

Qiao W, Zhao C, Qin N, Zhai HY, Duan HQ. Identification of trans-tiliroside as active principle with anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects from Potentilla chinesis. Journal of ethnopharmacology. May 17 2011;135(2):515-521.

Rabe K, Lehrke M, Parhofer KG, Broedl UC. Adipokines and Insulin Resistance. Molecular Medicine. 2008;14(11-12):741-751.

Rabinovitz H, Friedensohn A, Leibovitz A, et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004;74(3):178-82.

Rafiei R, Habyby Z, Fouladi L, et al. Chromium level in prediction of diabetes in pre-diabetic patients. Adv Biomed Res. 2014;3:235.

Rahman K. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clinical interventions in aging. 2007;2(2):219-236.

Rana S, Blowers EC, Natarajan A. Small molecule adenosine 5’-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulators and human diseases. J Med Chem. 2015;58:2-29.

Ranasinghe P, Jayawardana R, Galappaththy P, et al. Efficacy and safety of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2012;29(12):1480-92.

Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. Dec 1988;37(12):1595-1607.

Reaven GM. Insulin resistance: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. The Medical clinics of North America. Sep 2011;95(5):875-892.

Rena G, Pearson ER, Sakamoto K. Molecular mechanism of action of metformin: old or new insights? Diabetologia. 2013;56(9):1898-1906.

Rizza W, Veronese N, Fontana L. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity? Ageing Res Rev. Jan 2014;13:38-45.

Rochester CD, Akiyode O. Novel and emerging diabetes mellitus drug therapies for the type 2 diabetes patient. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(3):305-315.

Roden M. Hepatic glucose production and insulin resistance. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2008;158/19-20:558-561.

Rodriguez de Sotillo DV, Hadley M, Sotillo JE. Insulin receptor exon 11+/- is expressed in Zucker (fa/fa) rats, and chlorogenic acid modifies their plasma insulin and liver protein and DNA. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Jan 2006;17(1):63-71.

Roopchand DE, Kuhn P, Rojo LE, et al. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice. Pharmacol Res. 2013;68(1):59-67.

Roshanov PS, Dennis BB. Incretin-based therapies are associated with acute pancreatitis: Meta-analysis of large randomized controlled trials. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Dec 2015;110(3):e13-17.

Ross SM. African mango (IGOB131): a proprietary seed extract of Irvingia gabonensis is found to be effective in reducing body weight and improving parameters in overweight humans. Holist Nurs Pract. 2011;25(4):215-217.

Roy MC, Anguenot R, Fillion C, et al. Effect of a commercially-available algal phlorotannins extract on digestive enzymes and carbohydrate absorption in vivo. Food Res Int. 2011;44:3026-3029.

Rubino F, Nathan DM, Eckel RH, Schauer PR, Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ, . . . Cummings DE. Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement by International Diabetes Organizations. Diabetes care. Jun 2016;39(6):861-877.

Ruderman NB, Carling D, Prentki M, Cacicedo JM. AMPK, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. The Journal of clinical investigation. Jul 2013;123(7):2764-2772.

Russell SJ. Review: progress of artificial pancreas devices towards clinical use: the first outpatient studies. Curr Opin Endocrinol Obes. 2015;22:106-111.

Rybakowski JK. Effect of Lithium on Neurocognitive Functioning. Current Alzheimer research. Apr 15 2016.

Ryder RE. The potential risks of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer with GLP-1-based therapies are far outweighed by the proven and potential (cardiovascular) benefits. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Oct 2013;30(10):1148-1155.

Ryu TY, Park J, Scherer PE. Hyperglycemia as a risk factor for cancer progression. Diabetes Metab. 2014;38(5):330-6.

Sainz N, Barrenetxe J, Moreno-Aliaga MJ, Martinez JA. Leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity: central and peripheral actions of leptin. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Jan 2015;64(1):35-46.

Salminen A, Hyttinen JM, Kaarniranta K. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits NF-kappaB signaling and inflammation: impact on healthspan and lifespan. J Mol Med (Berl). 2011;89(7):667-76.

Sandhir R, Gupta S. Molecular and biochemical trajectories from diabetes to Alzheimer's disease: A critical appraisal. World journal of diabetes. Sep 25 2015;6(12):1223-1242.

Sarbolouki S, Javanbakht MH, Derakhshanian H, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves insulin sensitivity in overweight type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Singapore Med J. 2013;54(7):387-90.

Sarnoski-Brocavich S, Hilas O. Canagliflozin (Invokana), a Novel Oral Agent For Type-2 Diabetes. P & T : a peer-reviewed journal for formulary management. Nov 2013;38(11):656-666.

Sartorius T, Peter A, Schulz N, Drescher A, Bergheim I, Machann J, . . . Hennige AM. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity. PloS one. 2014;9(3):e92358.

Sasaki S, Inoguchi T. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Diabets Metab. 2012;36(4):255-261.

Satoh T, Igarashi M, Yamada S, et al. Inhibitory effect of black tea and its combination with acarbose on small intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;161:147-55.

Schaafsma D, Gosens R, Ris JM, et al. Insulin induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Br J Phrmacol. 2007;150(2):136-42.

Schauer PR, Burguera B, Ikramuddin S, Cottam D, Gourash W, Hamad G, . . . Kelley D. Effect of Laparoscopic Roux-En Y Gastric Bypass on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Annals of Surgery. 2003;238(4):467-485.

Scheen AJ, Paquot N. Metformin revisited: a critical review of the benefit-risk balance in at-risk patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2013;39:179-190.

Scheen AJ. Cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: from risk factors to clinical outcomes. Postgraduate medicine. May 2013;125(3):7-20.

Schmitz O, Brock B, Rungby J. Amylin Agonists: A Novel Approach in the Treatment of Diabetes. Diabetes. December 1, 2004 2004;53(suppl 3):S233-S238.

Schurman L, McCarthy AD, Sedlinsky C, et al. Metformin reverts deleterious effects of advanced glycation end-products on osteoblastic cells. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008;116(6):333-40.

Seidler NW, Yeargans GS, Morgan TG. Carnosine disaggregates glycated alpha-crystallin: an in vitro study. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. Jul 1 2004;427(1):110-115.

Selam JL. Inhaled insulin: promises and concerns. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2(2):311-5.

Selhub J, Jacques PF, Bostom AG, Wilson PW, Rosenberg IH. Relationship between plasma homocysteine and vitamin status in the Framingham study population. Impact of folic acid fortification. Public health reviews. 2000;28(1-4):117-145.

Semba RD, Nicklett EJ, Ferrucci L. Does accumulation of advanced glycation end products contribute to the aging phenotype? The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. Sep 2010;65(9):963-975.

Seshasai SR, Kaptoge S, Thompson A, et al. Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(9):829-41.

Shahbazian H. World diabetes day; 2013. Journal of renal injury prevention. 2013;2(4):123-124.

Sheard NF, Clark NG, Brand-Miller JC, Franz MJ, Pi-Sunyer FX, Mayer-Davis E, . . . Geil P. Dietary Carbohydrate (Amount and Type) in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes: A statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care. September 1, 2004 2004;27(9):2266-2271.

Sheng X, Zhang Y, Gong Z, et al. Improved insulin resistance and lipid metabolism by cinnamon extract through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. PPAR Res. 2008;2008:581348.

Shi L, Qin N, Hu L, et al. Tiliroside-derivatives enhance GLUT4 translocation via AMPK in muscle cells. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;92:e41-e46.

Shi TJ, Zhang MD, Zeberg H, et al. Coenzyme Q10 prevents peripheral neuropathy and attenuates neuron loss in the db-/db- mouse, a type 2 diabetes model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;11092):690-5.

Shimabukuro M, Higa N, Chinen I, et al. Effects of a single administration of acarbose on postprandial glucose excursion and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients” a randomized crossover study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(3):837-42.

Shimoda M, Kaku K. Controversy about the relationship between sulfonylurea use and cardiovascular events and mortality. J Diabetes Investig. Feb 9 2016.

Shoeb M, Ramana KV. Anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine are mediated through the regulation of the arachidonic acid pathway in macrophages. Free radical biology & medicine. Jan 1 2012;52(1):182-190.

Siekmeier R, Scheuch G. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality? Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society. Dec 2008;59 Suppl 6:81-113.

Silva KC, Rosales MA, Hamassaki DE, et al. Green tea is neuroprotective in diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(2):1325-36.

Simental-Mendia LE, Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesemia: a clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Med Res. 2014;45(4):325-30.

Simeonov S, Pavlova M, Mitkov M, Mincheva L, Troev D. Therapeutic efficacy of "Milgamma" in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Folia medica. 1997;39(4):5-10.

Simm A. Protein glycation during aging and in cardiovascular disease. J Proteomics. 2013;92:248-259.

Simons LA, Friedlander Y, McCallum J, Simons J. Fasting plasma glucose in non-diabetic elderly women predicts increased all-causes mortality and coronary heart disease risk. Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine. Feb 2000;30(1):41-47.

Simsek M, Quezada-Calvillo R, Ferruzzi MG, Nichols BL, Hamaker BR. Dietary phenolic compounds selectively inhibit the individual subunits of maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase with the potential of modulating glucose release. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Apr 22 2015;63(15):3873-3879.

Singh AK, Singh R, Kota SK. Bariatric surgery and diabetes remission: Who would have thought it? Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. Sep-Oct 2015;19(5):563-576.

Singh SK. Post-prandial hyperglycemia. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(Suppl 2):S245-S247.

Smart NG, Apelqvist AA, Gu X, Harmon EB, Topper JN, MacDonald RJ, Kim SK. Conditional expression of Smad7 in pancreatic beta cells disrupts TGF-beta signaling and induces reversible diabetes mellitus. PLoS biology. Feb 2006;4(2):e39.

Smith JR, Thiagaraj HV, Seaver B, Parker KK. Differential activity of lipoic acid enantiomers in cell culture. Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy. 2005;5(3):43-54.

Smith SM, Vale WW. The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuroendocrine responses to stress. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2006;8(4):383-395.

Soare A, Weiss EP, Pozzilli P. Benefits of caloric restriction for cardiometabolic health, including type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. Mar 2014;30 Suppl 1:41-47.

Solati M, Ouspid E, Hosseini S, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in type II diabetic patients. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2014;July 15;28:67.

Song SJ, Choi S, Park T. Decaffeinated green coffee bean extract attenuates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:Article ID 718379.

Soranna D, Scotti L, Zambon A, et al. Cancer risk associated with use of metformin and sulfonylurea in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Oncologist. 2012;17(6):813-22.

Sprague JE, Arbelaez AM. Glucose counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Pediatric endocrinology reviews: PER. Sep 2011;9(1):463-473; quiz 474-465.

Standl E, Theodorakis MJ, Erbach M, et al. On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2014;13:81.

Stattin P, Bjor O, Ferrari P, et al. Prospective study of hyperglycemia and cancer risk. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(3):561-567.

Steven S, Lim EL, Taylor R. Population response to information on reversibility of Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Apr 2013;30(4):e135-138.

Steyers CM, 3rd, Miller FJ, Jr. Endothelial dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases. International journal of molecular sciences. 2014;15(7):11324-11349.

Stirban A, Nandrean S, Gotting C, Tamler R, Pop A, Negrean M, . . . Tschoepe D. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on macro- and microvascular function in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Mar 2010;91(3):808-813.

Stirban A, Negrean M, Stratmann B, et al. Benfotiamine prevents macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress following a meal rich in advanced glycation end products in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. 2006;29(9):2064-2071.

Strack T. Metformin: a review. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998). Apr 2008;44(4):303-314.

Stracke H, Gaus W, Achenbach U, Federlin K, Bretzel RG. Benfotiamine in diabetic polyneuropathy (BENDIP): results of a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes: official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association. Nov 2008;116(10):600-605.

Stracke H, Lindemann A, Federlin K. A benfotiamine-vitamin B combination in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes: official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association. 1996;104(4):311-316.

Streeper RS, Henriksen EJ, Jacob S, Hokama JY, Fogt DL, Tritschler HJ. Differential effects of lipoic acid stereoisomers on glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. The American journal of physiology. Jul 1997;273(1 Pt 1):E185-191.

Stull AJ, Cash KC, Johnson WD, Champagne CM, Cefalu WT. Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women. The Journal of nutrition. Oct 2010;140(10):1764-1768.

Su Y, Zhao Y, Zhang C. Bariatric surgery: beta cells in type 2 diabetes remission. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. Feb 2016;32(2):122-131.

Suarez EA, Koro CE, Christian JB, Spector AD, Araujo AB, Abraham S. Incretin-mimetic therapies and pancreatic disease: a review of observational data. Current medical research and opinion. Dec 2014;30(12):2471-2481.

Subash S, Essa MM, Al-Adawi S, Memon MA, Manivasagam T, Akbar M. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases. Neural regeneration research. Aug 15 2014;9(16):1557-1566.

Sudchada P, Saokaew S, Sridetch S, et al. Effects of folic acid supplementation on plasma total homocysteine levels and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;98(1):151-8.

Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Yuwanakorn A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes. J Clin Parm Ther. 2014;39:292-306.

Szablewski L. Diabetes mellitus: influences on cancer risk. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014;30(7):543-53.

Takahashi K, Kamada C, Yoshimura H, Okumura R, Iimuro S, Ohashi Y, . . . Ito H. Effects of total and green vegetable intakes on glycated hemoglobin A1C and triglycerides in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Japanese Elderly Intervention Trial. Geriatrics & gerontology international. Apr 2012;12 Suppl 1:50-58.

Takahashi M, Miyashita M, Suzuki K, Bae SR, Kim HK, Wakisaka T, . . . Yasunaga K. Acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea improves postprandial glucose status and increases serum thioredoxin concentrations in postmenopausal women. The British journal of nutrition. Nov 14 2014;112(9):1542-1550.

Takikawa M, Inoue S, Horio F, et al. Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. J Nutr. 2010;140(3):527-533.

Tasyurek HM, Altunbas HA, Balci MK, et al. Incretins: their physiology and application in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014;30:354-371.

Teas J, Baldeon ME, Chiriboga DE, Davis JR, Sarries AJ, Braverman LE. Could dietary seaweed reverse the metabolic syndrome? Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2009;18(2):145-154.

Thakkar B, Aronis KN, Vamvini MT, Shields K, Mantzoros CS. Metformin and sulfonylureas in relation to cancer risk in type II diabetes patients: a meta-analysis using primary data of published studies. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Jul 2013;62(7):922-934.

Tirosh A, Shai I, Tekes-Manova D, Israeli E, Pereg D, Shochat T, . . . Rudich A. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men. The New England journal of medicine. Oct 6 2005;353(14):1454-1462.

Toft I, Jenssen T. Type 2 diabetic patients have increased gluconeogenic efficiency to substrate availability, but intact autoregulation of endogenous glucose production. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation. 2005;65(4):307-320.

Tognon G, Lissner L, Saebye D, Walker KZ, Heitmann BL. The Mediterranean diet in relation to mortality and CVD: a Danish cohort study. The British journal of nutrition. Jan 14 2014;111(1):151-159.

Tome’-Carneiro J, Larrosa M, Yanez-Gascon MJ, et al. One-year supplementation with a grape extract containing resveratrol modulates inflammatory-related microRNAs and cytokines expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of type 2 diabetes and hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. Pharmacol Res. 2013;72:69-82.

Trujillo JM, Nuffer W, Ellis SL. GLP-1 receptor agonists: a review of head-to-head clinical studies. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2015;6(1):19-28.

Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Menichini F. Natural products as alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and their hypoglycaemic potential in the treatment of diabetes: an update. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry. Apr 2010;10(4):315-331.

Tzimas P, Petrou A, Laou E, Milionis H, Mikhailidis DP, Papadopoulos G. Impact of metabolic syndrome in surgical patients: should we bother? British journal of anaesthesia. Jun 23 2015.

Uchiyama Y, Suzuki T, Mochizuki K, et al. Dietary supplementation with a low dose of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces pro-inflammatory responses in peripheral leukocytes of non-obese type 2 diabetic GK rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2013;59(6):541-7.

Udupa A, Nahar P, Shah S, et al. A comparative study of effects of omega-3 fatty acids, alpha lipoic acid and vitamin E in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Med Health. 2013;3:442-6.

UIE. University of Illinois Extension. Your Guide to Diet & Diabetes. What Impacts Blood Glucose Levels? Available at: http://extension.illinois.edu/diabetes2/subsection.cfm?SubSectionID=26. Last updated: June 2014. Accessed 5/31/2015.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Diabetes. http://umm.edu/health-information/medical-reference-guide/medical-encyclopedia/articles/diabetes. 8/5/2014. Accessed 8/12/2015.

Unger J, Parkin C. Hypoglycemia in insulin-treated diabetes: a case for increased vigilance. Postgraduate medicine. Jul 2011;123(4):81-91.

UOS. University of Sydney. Not All Carbohydrate Foods Are Equal. http://www.glycemicindex.com/. Copyright 2015. Accessed 3/31/2016

Uribarri J, Woodruff S, Goodman S. Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(6):911-16.

Utzschneider KM, Kahn SE. Review: the role of insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(12):4753-4761.

Van de Laar FA, Lucassen PL, Akkermans RP, et al. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;18(2):CD003639.

Van Guelpen B, Hultdin J, Johansson I, et al. Plasma folate and totlal homocysteine levels are associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, independently of each other and of renal function. J Intern Med. 2009;266(2):182-95.

van Heijst JW, Niessen HW, Hoekman K, Schalkwijk CG. Advanced glycation end products in human cancer tissues: detection of Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine and argpyrimidine. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Jun 2005;1043:725-733.

Van Poppel PC, van Asseldonk EJ, Holst JJ, et al. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra improves first-phase insulin secretion and insulinogenic index in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014;16(12):1269-73.

Venkataraman K, Khurana S, Tai TC. Oxidative stress in aging--matters of the heart and mind. International journal of molecular sciences. 2013;14(9):17897-17925.

Venn BJ, Green TJ. Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships. European journal of clinical nutrition. Dec 2007;61 Suppl 1:S122-131.

Via M. The Malnutrition of Obesity: Micronutrient Deficiencies That Promote Diabetes. ISRN Endocrinology. 2012;2012:103472.

Vilsbøll T, Christensen M, Junker AE, Knop FK, Gluud LL. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on weight loss: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2012-01-11 13:01:56 2012;344.

Vimalananda V, Garg R. ePocrates online. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Available at: https://online.epocrates.com/u/291125/Type+1+diabetes+mellitus. Last updated 8/12/2014. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Violett B, Horman S, Leclerc J, et al. AMPK inhibition in health and disease. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;45(4):276-295.

Viollet B, Guigas B, Sanz Garcia N, et al. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin: an overview. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;122(6):253-270.

Visser ME, Witztum JL, Stroes ESG, Kastelein JJP. Antisense oligonucleotides for the treatment of dyslipidaemia. European heart journal. 2012;33(12):1451-1458.

Vivus. Qsymia. Highlights of prescribing information. https://qsymia.com/patient/include/media/pdf/prescribing-information.pdf. Last updated 10/2014. Accessed 4/15/16.

Vlassara H, Uribarri J. Advanced gkycation end products (AGE) and diabetes: cause, effect, or both? Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14(1):453.

Von Kriegstein E. Inhaled insulin for diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2106-2108.

Wada J, Makino H. Inflammation and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Clinical science (London, England: 1979). Feb 2013;124(3):139-152.

Walker MJ Jr, Morris LM, Cheng D. Improvement of cutaneous sensitivity in diabetic peripheral neuropathy with combination L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin, and pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Rev Neurol Dis. 2010;7(4):132-9.

Wang JS, Huang CN, Hung YJ, Kwok CF, Sun JH, Pei D, . . . Sheu WH. Acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination outperforms acarbose monotherapy for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Oct 2013;102(1):16-24.

Wang X, Yu C, Zhang B, Wang Y. The injurious effects of hyperinsulinism on blood vessels. Cell biochemistry and biophysics. Jun 2014;69(2):213-218.

Watts GF, Playford DA, Croft KD, Ward NC, Mori TA, Burke V. Coenzyme Q(10) improves endothelial dysfunction of the brachial artery in Type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. Mar 2002;45(3):420-426.

Wheeler ML, Pi-Sunyer FX. Carbohydrate issues: type and amount. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(4 Suppl 1):S34-9.

White JR, Davis SN, Cooppan R, Davidson MB, Mulcahy K, Manko GA, Nelinson D. Clarifying the Role of Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes Management. Clinical Diabetes. 2003;21(1):14-21.

Whitlatch HB, Gaddam S, Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Diabetes Mellitus. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com. Copyright 2015. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Wilcox G. Insulin and insulin resistance. Clin Biochem Rev. 2005;26(2):19-39.

Williams JA. GLP-1 mimetic drugs and the risk of exocrine pancreatic disease: Cell and animal studies. Pancreatology: official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.]. Jan-Feb 2016;16(1):2-7.

Wing RR, Blair EH, Bononi P, Marcus MD, Watanabe R, Bergman RN. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes care. Jan 1994;17(1):30-36.

Wing RR, Koeske R, Epstein LH, Nowalk MP, Gooding W, Becker D. Long-term effects of modest weight loss in type II diabetic patients. Archives of internal medicine. Oct 1987;147(10):1749-1753.

Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, Safford M, Knowler WC, Bertoni AG, . . . Group tLAR. Benefits of Modest Weight Loss in Improving Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes care. 2011;34(7):1481-1486.

Winkler G, Pal B, Nagybeganyi E, Ory I, Porochnavec M, Kempler P. Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Arzneimittel-Forschung. Mar 1999;49(3):220-224.

Witters LA. The blooming of the French lilac. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2001;108(8):1105-1107.

Wolpin BM, Bao Y, Qian ZR, Wu C, Kraft P, Ogino S, . . . Fuchs CS. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic beta-cell function, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Jul 17 2013;105(14):1027-1035.

Wong YV, Cook P, Somani BK. The association of metabolic syndrome and urolithiasis. International journal of endocrinology. 2015;2015:570674.

Wu AH, Spicer D, Stanczyk FZ, Tseng CC, Yang CS, Pike MC. Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). Mar 2012;5(3):393-402.

Xi B, Li S, Liu Z, Tian H, Yin X, Huai P, . . . Steffen LM. Intake of fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2014;9(3):e93471.

Xiang GD, Sun HL, Zhao LS, et al. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperglycemia during OGTT in impaired glucose tolerance. Clin Endocrinol. 2008;68:716-723.

Xie F, Cheng Z, Li S, Liu X, Guo X, Yu P, Gu Z. Pharmacokinetic study of benfotiamine and the bioavailability assessment compared to thiamine hydrochloride. Journal of clinical pharmacology. Jun 2014;54(6):688-695.

Xu H, Hu MB, Bai PD, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines in prostate cancer development and progression promoted by high-fat diet. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:249741.

Yadav A, Kataria MA, Saini V, et al. Role of leptin and adiponectin in insulin resistance. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2013;417:80-84.

Yamagishi S. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in vascular damage in diabetes. Exp Gerontol. 2011;46:217-224.

Yamamoto S, Matsushita Y, Nakagawa T, et al. Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese. Nutrition & Diabetes. 2014;4:e130.

Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Ito Y, et al. Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Nature. 2003;423:762-769.

Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Minokoshi Y, et al. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat Med. 2002;8(11):1288-95.

Yan LJ. Pathogenesis of chronic hyperglycemia: from reductive stress to oxidative stress. J Diabetes Res. 2014;2014:137919.

Yan X, Liao H, Cheng M, Shi X, Lin X, Feng XH, Chen YG. Smad7 Protein Interacts with Receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) to Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta)/Smad Signaling. The Journal of biological chemistry. Jan 1 2016;291(1):382-392.

Yang J, Han Y, Chen C, et al. EGCG attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammation by suppression of PKC and NF-alphaB signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Life Sci. 2013;92(10):589-97.

Yang X, Kong F. Evaluation of the in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of green tea polyphenols and different tea types. J Sci Food Agric. 2015;Feb 24. Doi:10.1002/jsfa.7147.

Yapislar H, Aydogan S. Effect of carnosine on erythrocyte deformability in diabetic rats. Arch Physiol Biochem. Dec 2012;118(5):265-272.

Yatsunami K, Ichida M, Onodera S. The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in leaves of 276 mulberry cultivars (Morus spp.) in Kyoto, Japan. Journal of natural medicines. Jan 2008;62(1):63-66.

Yeo J, Kang YJ, Jeon SM, et al. Potential hypoglycemic effect of an ethanol extract of Gynostemma penatphyllum in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Med Food. 2008;11(4):709-16.

Yoo JY, Kim SS. Probiotics and prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders.

Yoshino J, Mills KF, Yoon MJ, Imai S-i. Nicotinamide mononucleotide, a key NAD(+) intermediate, treats the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced diabetes in mice. Cell metabolism. 2011;14(4):528-536.

Yue W, Yang CS, DiPaola RS, Tan XL. Repurposing of metformin and aspirin by targeting AMPK-mTOR and inflammation for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). Apr 2014;7(4):388-397.

Zapp L, Slaga TJ, Zhao J, Lange M, Inventors. Method for Enhancing Post-Processing Content of Beneficial Compounds in Beverages Naturally Containing Same. US patent 8,357,419 B2. Jan. 22. 2013.

Zeki Al Hazzouri A, Stone KL, Haan MN, et al. Liptin. Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia Among Elderly Women. J Gerontol a Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68(2):175-180.

Zeymer U. Cardiovascular benefits of acarbose in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Int J Cardiol. 2006;107(1):11-20.

Zhang DW, Fu M, Gao SH, et al. Curcumin and diabetes: a sytematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:636053.

Zhang J, Tiller C, Shen J, Wang C, Girouard GS, Dennis D, . . . Ewart HS. Antidiabetic properties of polysaccharide- and polyphenolic-enriched fractions from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. Nov 2007;85(11):1116-1123.

Zhang YP, Eber A, Yuan Y, et al. Prophylactic and antinociceptive effects of coenzyme Q10 on diabetic neuropathic pain in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(4):945-54.

Zhou Y, Rui L. Leptin signaling and leptin resistance. Frontiers of medicine. Jun 2013;7(2):207-222.

Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Chu H, Duan H. Synthesis and biological activity of trans-tiliroside derivatives as potent anti-diabetic agents. Molecules. 2010;15(12):9174-9183.

Ziegler D, Reljanovic M, Mehnert H, Gries FA. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes: official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association. 1999;107(7):421-430.

Zoico E, Di Francesco V, Mazzali G, et al. Adipocytokines, fat distribution, and insulin resistance in elderly men and women. J Gerontol: Medical Sciences. 2004;59A(9):935-939.

Zuo H, Shi Z, Yuan B, et al. Association between serum leptin concentrations and insulin resistance: a population-based study in China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(1):e54615.